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REVIEW OF ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 33-42

Critical review on pharmaceutical prospects of acid formulations described in Ayurveda classics with respect to Draavak Kalpas


1 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Salod(H), Wardha, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Datta Meghe Ayurvedic Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication27-Aug-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bhagyashree Ratan Jibkate
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Salod(H), Wardha, Maharashtra.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JISM.JISM_18_19

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  Abstract 

Rasashastra, the pharmaceutical science, deals mainly with the processing and therapeutic utilization of metals and minerals. It aims at designing novel drugs with better curative attributes at minimum doses. Draavak Kalpas (acid formulations prepared by Ayurveda method) are rarely utilized Ayurveda formulations that claim to have specific therapeutic attributes. In spite of being acid preparation, the convenient form of administration and doses of Draavak Kalpas are more acceptable and can increase its usage to prevent and cure diseases of gastrointestinal tract. Draavak Kalpas are liquid preparations obtained by processing Lavana (salt) and Ksharas (alkaline materials). Forty different formulations, ingredients, methods of preparation, and its indications along with dose and Anupanas (adjuvant) are the peculiarity of this review. Distillation process and application of proper heat is the foremost method to obtain good quality of Draavak. Draavak Kalpas is the specialty of Rasashastra as they are mentioned only in the texts of Rasashastra. This review is carried out for the future research, so that its actual efficacy and utility of indications can be acknowledged.

Keywords: Agni, distillation process, Draavak Kalpas, pharmaceutics


How to cite this article:
Jibkate BR, Rathi BJ, Wanjari AS, Rajput DS. Critical review on pharmaceutical prospects of acid formulations described in Ayurveda classics with respect to Draavak Kalpas. J Indian Sys Medicine 2019;7:33-42

How to cite this URL:
Jibkate BR, Rathi BJ, Wanjari AS, Rajput DS. Critical review on pharmaceutical prospects of acid formulations described in Ayurveda classics with respect to Draavak Kalpas. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Dec 7];7:33-42. Available from: http://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2019/7/1/33/265516


  Introduction Top


Ayurveda is currently being more and more accepted by the globe at giant for its facilities and flexibility even to the trendy times. Rasashastra, the pharmaceutical science, deals principally with the process and therapeutic utilization of metals and minerals. It is designed in such a novel way that at minimal doses, it gives higher curative attributes. In today’s era, much more importance is given for feasibility, palatability, minimum dose, easy administration, increased bioavailability, shelf life, and so on.[1] This need is fulfilled by the formulations of Rasashastra, which includes Parpati, Kupipakwa Rasayana, Pottali Kalpas, and Kharaliya Kalpas. Draavak Kalpas (DK) is also one of them that aim at convenient form of administration and dosage. DK is mentioned in the texts of Rasashastra and not in any other Samhitas. DK tends to be a special formulation, which is different from herbal formulations. This specialty of DK has not been explored a lot and researches have not been carried out. The first step before conducting any research is to make a literature review. Thus, it was decided to present a classical review of DK.

DK is in liquid form obtained by processing Lavana (salts) and Ksharas (alkali) with or without distillation process as well as with or without addition of fluids.[2] The reference of Drava was first found in Rudramalaya Tantara as Agni Drava prepared by using Amla Rasa Dravyas (sour liquids).[3] The word “Draavak” means the one that causes to liquefy or melt.[4] As this specific Draavak has the potential to dissolve Shankhadi Sudha Varga Dravyas (calcium compounds), the name Shankha Draavak is given.[5] DK is found within the texts of Rasashastra that are unit among seventeenth century ad.

DK is a unique preparation explained in Ayurvedic classics for internal and external use. Internally used to treat Astha Vidha Shoola (pain), Agnimandya (loss of appetite), Grahani (bowel diseases), and other disorders of Annavaha Strotas (digestive system).[6] Externally used for cleansing wounds, Uttarbasti (enema in urethral and vaginal tract), Netrarogas (eye disorders), and local application. DK is prepared by herbal, herbo-mineral, and few with only mineral combinations. It is categorized based on the different methods of preparation such as distillation and mixing or triturating method. It is a colorless liquid obtained by chloride, sulfate, and carbonate as acid radicals.[7] It contains such active ingredients that it remains in Toya Rupa (liquid state) as explained in classics. In liquid dosage form, bioavailability is more and it attains quick action in lower dose.[8] It also acts as Ayurvedic alkalizer as it contains Ksharas.[9] Though the availability of raw materials such as Lavanas and Ksharas is in abundance, the formulation has not been studied in depth for its pharmaceutical preparation. However, DK is not the usually prescribed drug in common practice. The foremost reason for this can be nonavailability in market, issue in getting ready instruments and sophistication involved in the preparation, its reprocessing in terms of Shodhana of drugs used, lack of information regarding preparation, taking considerable time, possibilities of misusing DK due to its high potential, and fewer doses type.

The formulations of DK are dispersed in the texts of Rasashastra, which are not compiled till date. No specific monographs are developed on these preparations. Hence, sensible difficulties arise in its studies and pharmaceutical preparation. To enlighten these scattered data by considering its efficacy and better tolerability, this review was carried out. As a result, there emerges the need to know the exact procedures and methodologies involved in the preparation of this formulation and to bring such a potent Kalpas into practice.


  Materials and Methods Top


This review was conducted by learning recent classical texts of Rasashastra from the seventeenth century ad ahead, such as Rasatarangini, Rasayoga Sagara, Rasatantrasara, and Siddha Prayoga Sangraha, and also comparing the given information in classical text with available published studies.[10],[11]


  Observation and Result Top


There are more than 40 DKs found mentioned in the studied classical text. A detailed explanation regarding all the aspects of manufacture of DK is seen in Rasatarangini, Rasa yoga Sagara, Rasatantra Sara, Siddhaprayoga Sangraha, and Bharata Bhaishajya Ratnakar. Totally different formulations, ingredients, methods of preparation, and its indications along with dose and Anupanas (adjuvant) are summarized in [Table 1],[Table 2],[Table 3].
Table 1: Draavak Kalpas mentioned in Rasa Tarangini (R.T.)[12]

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,
Table 2: Draavak Kalpas mentioned in Rasayoga Sagara (R.Y.S.)[13]

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,
Table 3: Draavak Kalpas mentioned in Rasatantrasara and Siddha Prayoga Sangraha (R.S.S.)[14]

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  Discussion Top


DKs are said to be acidic preparations. Acidic preparations are highly potent, absorb quickly, and may have higher bioavailability.[15] As DKs are acid-containing preparations, it can be said that they are the most potent formulations. Acidic preparation apart from those prepared by Ayurveda may have tendency to be corrosive in nature, which makes it inconvenient for administration. But DKs are processed in such a way that they are likely to be diluted, convenient, and acceptable in case of others. In Rasatarangini, there are 24 references of DK and Draava; in Rasa Yoga Sagara, 14 references of Shankha Draavak Rasa; and in Rasatantrasara and Siddha Prayoga Sangraha, six references of Drava are elaborated. Most of the Kalpas are repeated in the text after twentieth century. The description of Draavak Yantra makes one to think over on the sophistication concerned in the preparation of DK, which has eventually led to minimum usage of this formulation. The Yantras (instruments) mentioned for preparing DK include Nadika Yantra, Triyakpatan Yantra, Varuni Yantra, Tejoyantra, and Damru Yantra.[16] The principle behind functioning of these Yantras is similar to modern distillation apparatus. Instruments used are nearer to Arka Kalpana. The preparation of DK is different to that of Arka Kalpana by ingredients and pattern of heat specified. In modern science, some of the drugs of acidic properties are also made by distillation process.[17] Different types of fire used for heating are mentioned, which plays major role in these preparations. Suradeepagni (candle flame), Deeptagni (flame of lamp), Mandagni (mild fire), Madhyamagni (moderate fire), Tikshnaagni (stern fire), and Kramaagni (fire in increasing order) are the types of fire mentioned in classics depending on the nature of flame . Suradeepagni is equivalent to the flame of spirit lamp. If the flame of Suradeepagni is increased to two or four times, it is considered as Deeptagni.[18] If the flame of Deeptagni is increased to four times, it is termed as Mandagni approximately 120°C–250°C.[19] The fire in which the flame is in between Deeptagni and Mandagni is termed as Madhyamagni, approximately 250°C–450°C. The fire that is five times Madhyamagni is called as Tikshnaagni, approximately 450°C–600°C and the fire that is slowly increased in sequence is called as Kramaagni. On the basis of temperature, they differ from each other. While preparing few DK, fuel of Badara (Ziziphus mauritiana) and Khadira (Acacia catechu) is used as it provides intense heat.[20] Time duration required to prepare DK is nearly 3–4h and differs according to formulation.[21] This shows that intense and continuous heat is required for preparing DK, especially the one that contains minerals as its ingredient.

There are two methods of preparing, namely Agni (with heat) and Anagni (without heating). In Agni method, the DK is prepared by using distillation apparatus. The ingredients here are taken in distillation apparatus and without adding any fluids, it is subjected to heat as in Shankha Draavak,[22]Navasadara Bhaspha,[23]Gandhaka Drava,[24] and Maha Shankha Drava.[25] In Anagni method, Draavak is prepared without subjecting to heat. Here the ingredients are mixed with the Drava Dravyas and stirred daily till it gets dissolved as in Tankanamla Drava,[26]Kasisa Drava,[27]Nimbu Drava, and Jambeera Drava.[28] DK can also be categorized as Sandra (concentrated) and Sarala (diluted).[29] The one that is concentrated is called as Sandra and diluted one is Sarala such as Lavana Drava and Sajala Lavana Drava.[30] DKs are used for external and internal use. Internally, they are used in diluted form with appropriate Anupanas such as in Sajala Gandhaka Drava in a dose of 5–20 drops with Anupana of Ajamoda Arka or Shatapuspha Arka either in 48, 72, or 96mL of water.[31]Parad Bhasma as Anupana in Vatarogas is also mentioned.[32]Laja Churna, Nagavelli Patra, and Lavanga Churna are also some of the Anupanas for Shankha Draavak. Externally used for cleaning of syphilitic wounds by Tuttha Drava. In Basti Shoath, Uttarbasti is given by Tankanamla Drava; Sorakamliya Rajat Drava is used as Lepa in case of Visarpa and Vispotha; and Sudanshu Drava and Nayanamruta Drava are some of the special preparations used in Netrarogas such as Netrakandu, Netrapalika Shoath Abhishyanda as eye drops. Dose of DK is very less, that is, few drops and it is used after dilution with water because the ingredients are alkaline in nature and increases saliva, bile, and pancreatic juice. Duration of use is very short and few other uses are till the symptoms subside.

According to Monier Williams, the meaning of the word “Draavak” is distilled mineral acid.[33] The drugs used in the preparation of Draavak possess alkaline property.[34] The probable mode of action of Draavak is possibly because of Ushna Virya, Tikshna Guna, Agni Deepana, Pachana, and Shulagna properties of the ingredients in it. It also acts as Ayurvedic alkalizer. Potassium and carbonate are the major components present in Draavak. Thus, Annadrava and Udar Shoola could be sustained by the presence of potassium in Draavak. As Shankha is the main ingredient in Shankha Draavak, it is especially useful when increased stomach acid causes pain in stomach and intestine. Shankha is specially processed with Amla Dravyas that enables pH of stomach more efficiently. It is well known for its antacid and digestive properties and mainly consists of calcium, iron, and magnesium. Considering the parameter explained in the text for assessing Shankha Draavak dissolves Shankhadi Sudha Varga Dravyas when soaked in it, dissolving an alkaline substance (Shankha) in an alkaline medium (Shankha Draavak) is a point to be debated. High scientific and rationale thinking of our Acharyas is glanced here by their high perceptive of knowledge. Thus, this literature review is carried out to create base for undertaking future research work because without research efficacy, utility cannot be established.


  Conclusion Top


DK is the specialty of Rasashastra as these types of formulations are found only in the texts of Rasashastra and not in the Samhitas. There are more than 40 formulations of DK found mentioned in the studied classical text. Maximum DK involves distillation process, which indicates distillation process is most essential to prepare good quality of DK. On the basis of classical data, it is clear that DK is basically indicated in treating gastrointestinal disorders. DKs are acid-containing preparations, which are rarely used because of lack of clear classical guidelines as well as higher precautions required during their use. It can be claimed that with the increasing breach of era, these rarely utilized and being risky formulations were left behind the need of time. However, without substantial proof it cannot be said that these formulations have less or no efficacy. Hence, there is a need of further researches on experimental and clinical ground to explore therapeutic utility of these formulations.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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