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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 112-118

Pharmaceutico-analytical study of Adraka Khanda


Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital & Research Centre, Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication21-Nov-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Neha S Chavhan
Flat No. 203, Gajanan Shiwani Apartment, Sawangi (M), Wardha, Maharashtra.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JISM.JISM_19_19

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  Abstract 

Background: Adraka (Zingiber Officinale) Khanda described in Bhaishajya Ratnavali is a drug of choice in Udarda (Pressure Urticaria), Shittapitta (Cold Urticaria) and Koth (Solar Urticaria) such as autoimmune system. This formulation is having spicy test. Khanda being one of the common dosage from appreciated by all age group for their palatability and easy method of administration and feasibility. Pharmaceutical standardization of this formulation is not established yet, which is first step towards research on the formulation. Hence present work was planned. Material and Method: Three batches of Adraka were prepared by adopting reference of Bhaishajya Ratnavali and the average required for preparation of Adraka Khanda was one day. A constant heat of 90 to 100 °C was maintained throughout the procedure. Result and Conclusion: The analytical study revealed average observed values of pH (6.2), Acid insoluble ash (0.50), Moisture content (3.5), Water extract (23.2) Alcoholic extract (20.8), Water soluble ash (4.3) , Total ash (5.2).

Keywords: Adraka Khanda, Khanda, phytochemical analysis


How to cite this article:
Chavhan NS, Rathi B. Pharmaceutico-analytical study of Adraka Khanda. J Indian Sys Medicine 2019;7:112-8

How to cite this URL:
Chavhan NS, Rathi B. Pharmaceutico-analytical study of Adraka Khanda. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jul 15];7:112-8. Available from: http://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2019/7/2/112/271408




  Introduction Top


Bhaishajya in accordance to the requirement is flourished by undergoing different modulations. These efforts designed a new branch Bhaishajya Kalpana, an Ayurveda pharmaceutical sciences. The medicinal formulations are prepared by potentiating properties of drugs. It aids a physician to use formulations in various forms and techniques to fight the disease. There are many pharmaceutical methods developed for various medicines preparation to compete with need of all time availability, easy dispensing, and efficacy. In the same sequence, Acharya has mentioned different formulations, such as decoctions, powders, tablets, and Avalehas semi-solid medicated formulations, with similar herbal ingredients but vary in proportion of ingredients, efficacy, dose, and palatability, and so on.[1]

In Ayurveda classics, skin disorders have been mentioned under Rakta and Mamsavaha Srotodushthi Vikaras (diseases of blood and muscle channel),[2]Shittapitta (urticaria) is one of the skin disease these channels. Shittapitta, explained as an independent disease in Ayurveda, can be correlated with urticaria which is common complaints in day-to-day practice. Khanda is a granule preparation and its assimilation starts from the buccal cavity.[3] It has been appreciated by all age groups for their palatability and easy method of administration. It can be compared with the confectionaries. These can be defined as a part of food that provides medical or health benefit along with the prevention and treatment of disease.[4]Haridra (Curcuma longa) Khanda and Narikela (Cocos nucifera) Khanda are some of the examples.

Adraka Khanda[5] is a herbal formulation, which is explained in Bhaishajya Ratnavalli in the context of Udarda Shittapitta Kotha Adhyaya. The ingredients of Adraka Khanda are Adraka, Pippali (Piper longum Linn.), Pippalimula (Piper longum roots), Marich (Piper nigrum Linn.), Sunthi (Zingiber officinale), Chitrakmula (Plumbago zeylanica), Vidang (Embelia ribes), Nagarmotha (Cyperus scariosus), Nagekshar (Mesua ferrea), Twak (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), Ela (Elettaria cardamomum Maton), Tejapatra (Cinnamomum tamala), Kachur (Curcuma zedoaria), Go-ghrita (Butyrum departum), Go-dugdha (milk), and Sharkara (sugar). Adraka, which is considered as a good flavoring agent and part of household spices, has many medicinal properties. It is considered as an important ingredient of all Ayurveda medicines. Since ginger has many medicinal properties it is part of, treatment of many ailments including diarrhea, stomach aches, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and Gastrointestinal tract distribution of nausea. Hence, this study was planned for the preparation and analysis of Adraka Khanda.


  Aims and Objectives Top






  1. To prepare Adraka Khanda according to Bhaishajya Ratnavalli
  2. To study the physicochemical parameters of individual drugs and Adraka Khanda



  Materials and Methods Top


The raw materials required for the preparation of Adraka Khanda were collected from trusted herbal raw drug provider from the local market of Wardha. Preparation and analytical study of Adraka Khanda was carried out at the Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College Hospital and Research Centre, Salod (H), Wardha, Maharashtra, India.


  Pharmaceutical Preparation of Adraka Khanda Top


Raw materials of Adraka Khanda Procedure photo

Drug numbers 2–13 given in [Table 1] and [Figure 1][Figure 2][Figure 3][Figure 4][Figure 5][Figure 6][Figure 7][Figure 8][Figure 9][Figure 10] are finally powdered and sieved through cloth and kept separately.[7] Wet Adraka (rhizome) is collected, cleaned well, external covering is separated with knife, and is made into fine Kalka form. The Kalka is fried with Go-ghrita on Mandagni (low fire) till Ghrita is separated from Kalka. Fried Kalka is boiled with milk to the consistency of soft paste on Mandagni. In another vessel, sugar is taken and mixed with appropriate quantity of water and boiled on Mandagni till it attains Madhyama paka. To this, Adraka paste is added and mixed thoroughly. Fine powders of drug numbers 2–13 are added and mixed thoroughly and made into a homogenous mixture as soon as the vessel is taken out of fire [Figure 11][Figure 12][Figure 13][Figure 14][Figure 15][Figure 16][Figure 17]. On cooling, it is preserved in a wide-mouthed vessel [Figure 18] and [Figure 19]. Texture, odor, and color of the individual drugs and Adraka Khanda were assessed as shown in [Table 3]. Individual raw drugs and Adraka Khanda were analyzed for loss on drying, extractive values, ash values, and pH as per the standard method prescribed in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) as shown in [Table 4]. Individual raw drugs and Adraka Khanda were analyzed for preliminary phytochemical analysis as prescribed in API and presented in [Table 5].[6]
Table 1: Ingredients of Adraka Khanda[6]

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Figure 1: (Marich)

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Figure 2: (Twak)

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Figure 3: (Sunthi)

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Figure 4: (Ela)

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Figure 5: (Tejapatra)

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Figure 6: (Pippali)

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Figure 7: (Pippalimula)

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Figure 8: (Vidang)

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Figure 9: (Nagarmotha)

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Figure 10: (Nagekshar)

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Figure 11: (Sunthi)

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Figure 12: Prepared Adraka pulp

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Figure 13: Milk

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Figure 14: Prepared Adraka Swaras

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Figure 15: Paka Lakshan

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Figure 16: Fried Adraka pulp

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Figure 17: Homogenous mixture

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Figure 18: Prepared Adraka Khanda

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Figure 19: Packed Adraka Khanda

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Table 3: Organoleptic characters of raw drugs and Adraka Khanda

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Table 4: Physicochemical analysis of raw drug and Adraka Khanda

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Table 5: Average result of microbial contamination specification of Adraka Khanda for internal use

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  Observation and Results Top


After adding Sharkara (sugar) to the decoction, effervescence was observed, which subsided on constant stirring. Gradual thickening of syrup, consistency of Tantumatwa (threadlike) and Darvi pralepa (adhesion of syrup to spoon), was observed in 1h 30min of heating. After 1h 50min of heating, the syrup was found to be in two-thread consistency with Apsumajjan (dipping in water). Bindu paka (settled drop of syrup in water) with Paititastu na Shriyate (not instant dissolution in water) was observed after 2h and 5min. Adraka Khanda was obtained in three batches.


  Discussion Top


Adraka Khanda generally composes of fresh Kalka (paste) extracted from roots, but in this study, it was not preferred as procuring fresh each time for large-scale production was not feasible. According to Bhaishajya Ratnavalli, it advisable to use Kalka[8] observed after adding sugar to decoction, which needs continuous observation and stirring. As the moisture content reduces in syrup, cohesive force increases and further application of heat imparts kinetic movement to the sugar molecules, and when it is cooled, loss of kinetic movement makes the sugar molecules to coalesce. This explains the reasoning behind thickening and solidifying after cooling. Sugar percentage up to 60%–70% [Table 2] is required for granule preparations, which can be accessed when mixture of sugar and reaches more than two-thread consistency.[9] This stage indicates less moisture content in the Khanda. In previous study time required of Khanda preparation was noted up to 6h 40min.[9] Average time required for preparation of Khanda was 6h 40min after adding to the decoction it took average 1h 30min to attain one-thread consistency and next 20–30min in previous granules study also have same time required for formation of desired consistency required for preparation of Khanda.
Table 2: Quantity of Adraka Khanda obtained

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The temperature during the whole process was maintained under 100°C for optimum preservation of active constituents in the product. In API, a formulation Puga (Areca catechu) Khanda is mentioned, which has standard value for analytical parameter such has loss on drying 105°C, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, alcohol-soluble extractive, water-soluble extractive, pH, 5, 2.40,1.00,17.0.69.0.5.0 to 5.5% [Table 6].[10] However, Adraka Khanda is not mentioned in API. Both formulations come under Khanda Kalpana (preparation), therefore standard parameter mentioned for Puga Khanda can be considered to judge the obtained values in the analysis of Adraka Khanda; after comparing these values, it is evident that analysis of Adraka Khanda is in the range of standards mentioned in API of Puga Khanda. Hence, it can be interpreted that analytical finding of this study can be undertaken as standard for further researches. Adraka Khanda on decoction prepared from was cream color hence obtained batches were also having cream color. Loss on drying at 105°C indicates the presence of moisture content. If moisture content is more than the permissible limit then the formulation is more likely to get infected by fungal growth.[1] Moreover, unwanted changes can also occur due to the presence of more moisture. In the prepared batches, moisture content was much less (3%), that is, this formulation may have more stability. Acid-insoluble ash represents the presence of inorganic content, which is not expected in pure herbal formulation.[9] The obtained value of acid-insoluble ash in all batches was negligible. Insignificant difference was observed in alcohol-soluble extractives, which may be due to addition of flavor. The extractive values, namely water soluble and alcohol soluble, indicate the amount of active constituent in a given amount of plant material when extracted with respective solvents, a lower value compared to standard value indicates the presence of exhausted material.[11] Water-soluble extractive value was also nearly same in all the three batches. This value is related with dissolution in gastrointestinal tract and assimilation along with other liquid media.[9] More water solubility is helpful for internal administration of Adraka Khanda with milk as vehicle. The physical parameter such as pH was determined to avoid gastric irritation. All samples showed acidic pH.
Table 6: Preliminary phytochemical analysis of raw drug and Adraka Khanda

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One important characteristic is tapped bulk density or simply tapped (tap) density, that is, the maximum packing density of a powder (or blend of powders) achieved under the influence of well-defined, externally applied forces. The minimum packed volume thus achieved depends on a number of factors including particle size distribution, true density, particle shape, and cohesiveness due to surface forces including moisture. Therefore, the tap density of a material can be used to predict both its flow properties and its compressibility.[12] Observed densities of samples are within the committee standard. The finer the particle size more will be the solubility and thus more will be the gastrointestinal absorption. The Adraka Khanda of all batches were fine enough to pass through 80–100 mesh size. As all batches were prepared by taking required hygienic care and by using sterilized instruments, the result of microbial content study showed absence of Enterobacteriaceae, total fungus count,  Escherichia More Details coli,  Salmonella More Details, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [Table 5].


  Conclusion Top


Khanda form helps in fixing the dose, easy administration, and also increases the shelf life of the formulation. The adopted manufacturing procedure can be accepted as SMP (standard manufacturing procedure) for Adraka Khanda. The present analytical parameters can be used for routine quality control of the formulations.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Rathi B, Rathi R, Rajput DS . Pharmaceutical standardization of Avalgujadi lepguti. J Indian Syst Med 2016;4:72-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Shastri K. Sutrastahan 18. In: Charak Samhita. Vol. I. Varanasi, India: Chaukhambha Sanskrita Sansthan; 2004. p. 454.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Nandennavar V, Deshpande P. Pharmaceutico analytical study of Adraka Avaleha. Ayurpub 2018;3:56.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Baragi PC, Patgiri BJ, Prajapati PK. Neutraceuticals in ayurveda with special reference to Avaleha Kalpana. Anc Sci Life 2008;28:29-32.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Bulusu S. Bhavapraksha of Bhavamisra. 1st ed. Vol. II. 16/21. Varanasi, India: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2018, p. 548.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of India System of Medicine & Homoeopathy. AFI Part II Verse No. 406. 1999. p. 50.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Srikantha Murthy RK. Madhyam Khanda. Slokha No. 3, Chapter 8. In: Sharangdhara Samhita. Varanasi, India: Jaikrishnadas Ayurved Series, Chaukhamba Orientalia; Reprint 2012. p. 11.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Seth A. Quality evaluation and standardization of Adraka Khanda an Ayurvedic formulation Ayurvedic Pharmacy Laboratory, Rajiv Gandhi South Campus, Banaras Hindu University Mirapur, India, J Chem Pharm Res 2015;7:523-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Gokarna R, Rajput D, Rathi B, Wanjari A. Pharmaceutical standardization of Shatavari granules J Indian Syst Med 2015;3:54.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Vol. Part II. 1st ed. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; 1999. p. 28 (Appendix-2.2.102).  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Chamundeeswari D, Kanimozhi P, Vasanthkumar, Reddy CU. Formulation and evaluation of churna for digestive property. Sri Ramachandra J Med 2007:39.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Available from: http://www.pharmaceuticalonline.com/doc/importance-of-powder-density-in-solid-dosage-0001. [Last accessed on 2015 July 09].  Back to cited text no. 12
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12], [Figure 13], [Figure 14], [Figure 15], [Figure 16], [Figure 17], [Figure 18], [Figure 19]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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