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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 119-126

Pharmaceutico-analytical standardization of Yashtimadhvadi Taila prepared from Murchhita and Amurchhita Tila Taila


Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication21-Nov-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ujala P Kale
Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Salod (H), Wardha 442001, Maharashtra.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JISM.JISM_35_19

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Sneha Murchhana is a process carried out on fats and oils before subjecting to preparation of medicated ghee and oils. It can be interrelated to refinement of oil, though there is variation in refinement and Murchhana, that is, Murchhana enhances its concentration of high-density fatty acids, increases efficacy of formulation, and decreases rancidity and undesirable color. The standardization of Yashtimadhvadi Taila is not mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India; hence in this study, an attempt has been made to establish pharmaceutical standardization of Yashtimadhvadi Taila prepared from Murchhita and Amurchhita Tila Taila. Materials and Methods: For pharmaceutical standardization of Yashtimadhvadi Taila prepared from Murchhita and Amurchhita Tila Taila, Murchhana of oil was carried out as mentioned in Bhaishajya Ratnavali, and Yashtimadhvadi Taila was formulated as referred in Vaidya Chintamani. In analytical study, the samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis such as refractive index, specific gravity, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter, acid value, iodine value, and peroxide value. Observations: Average quantity obtained after Murchhana of Tila Taila was 94.74%, that is, 5.26% weight loss. Total time required for the preparation of MYT (Yashtimadhvadi Taila prepared from Murchhita Taila) and AYT (Yashtimadhvadi Taila prepared from Amurchhita Taila) was 10h and 8.30h with 7.29% and 5.20% weight loss, respectively. The heating process was finished in three days. After Murchhana, increase in saponification value and decrease in iodine and peroxide value were observed. This suggested that the application of Murchhana process on the base oil (Tila Taila) enhanced the properties and stability of Yashtimadhvadi Taila.Conclusion: Yashtimadhvadi Taila can be prepared in three days by heating and maintaining average temperature up to 100°C. Mild heating and constant stirring are needed for medicated oil preparations possessing desired attributes. Considering all the data of study indicates the importance of concept of Murchhana in the therapeutic potency of Yashtimadhvadi Taila.

Keywords: Murchhana, pharmaceutical standardization, Yashtimadhvadi Taila


How to cite this article:
Kale UP, Wanjari AS, Rathi B, Rajput DS. Pharmaceutico-analytical standardization of Yashtimadhvadi Taila prepared from Murchhita and Amurchhita Tila Taila. J Indian Sys Medicine 2019;7:119-26

How to cite this URL:
Kale UP, Wanjari AS, Rathi B, Rajput DS. Pharmaceutico-analytical standardization of Yashtimadhvadi Taila prepared from Murchhita and Amurchhita Tila Taila. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jul 15];7:119-26. Available from: http://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2019/7/2/119/271412




  Introduction Top


Sneha Kalpana” (medicated fatty preparations) is one of the commonly prescribed Ayurvedic dosage form in day-to-day practice. Although lots of varieties of oils and Sneha are described in classical Ayurvedic texts, the most common among them are Taila (oil) and Ghrita (ghee) formulations. Sneha Kalpana (medicated fatty preparations) is a pharmaceutical procedure to prepare oleaginous medicine from substances such as Taila (Oil), Kalka (paste), and Drava Dravya (liquid media).[1] They are prepared in specific proportions by subjecting them to uniform heating pattern and duration to fulfill certain pharmaceutical parameters as per the requirement of the therapeutics.[2] For Sneha Kalpana, the route of administration is internal and as well as for Abhyanga (oil massage) and Nasya (nasal drop) etc.

For preparing medicated oil, different crude oils such as Tila Taila, Eranda Taila, mustard oil, and coconut oil are taken as a base. Before subjecting the drugs to Sneha Paka (heating of medicated oil), Sneha is supposed to undergo one particular procedure called as Sneha Murchhana. It is a process adopted for enhancing the potency of Taila.[3] Bhaishajya Ratnavali has mentioned about Murchhana for the first time;[4]because of Murchhana, Sneha will get such a capability to receive more active principles while the Veerya (potency) of Sneha is enhanced, and the bad odor and Amadosha (toxins) of Sneha are removed.[5] Research shows that Murchhana decreases the acid value and increases the saponification value. Its reduced acid value indicates less percentage of free fatty acids, and increased saponification value indicates higher content of low-molecular-weight fatty acids; medicated ghee/oil preparations containing low-molecular-weight fatty acids are absorbed fast.[6]

Manjishtha (Rubia cordifolia Linn.), Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn.), Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa Roxb.), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn.), Triphala, and so on, for Murchhana definitely result in major physicochemical change, and thus the prepared oil (after performing Murchhana) must possess pharmacotherapeutically different properties.[7]Yashtimadhvadi Taila is explained in the text of Vaidya Chintamani, Vallabhacharyavirchit, which is indicated for the enhancement of complexion.[8] Taking in account of all the aforementioned factors, it was decided to attempt for pharmaceutico-analytical standardization of Yashtimadhvadi Taila prepared from Murchhita and Amurchhita Tila Taila.


  Materials and Methods Top


Collection and Authentication of Raw Drugs

Among all drugs, dry drugs such as Manjishtha (R. cordifolia Linn.), Haridra (C. longa Linn.), Lodhra (S. racemosa Roxb.), Musta (C. rotundus Linn.), Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz.), Bibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica Roxb.), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) and Tila Taila (Sesamum indicum Linn.) were procured from Dattatreya Ayurveda Rasashala, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital and Research Centre, Salod (H), Wardha, Maharashtra, India. Ratanjot (Alkanna tinctoria Linn.) was procured from authenticated vendor (market of Nagpur). Vatankur (Ficus benghalensis Linn.) was collected from the herbarium of Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital and Research Centre. Nilotpala Kanda (Nymphaea stellata Willd.) was collected from Koradi Lake, and Ketakimoola (Pandanus odoratissimus Linn.) was collected from Goa.

Pharmaceutical Study

To establish pharmaceutical standardization, three batches of Yashtimadhvadi Taila were prepared from Murchhita and Amurchhita Tila Taila (only sesame oil). Yashtimadhvadi Taila prepared from Murchhita and Amurchhita Tila Taila was coded as MYT and AYT, respectively. Completion of heating of oil was accessed by Sneha Siddhi Lakshana, that is, bolus of herbal powders when rolled between two fingers becomes wick-like shaped; absence of cracking sound when few portion of bolus sprinkled on fire; color, odor, and taste of ingredients in oil.[9] The preparative procedure was divided into the following three steps:

  1. Murchhana of Tila Taila:[4]Tila Taila (1000mL) was taken in a steel vessel and heated on mild fire to remove moisture and it was allowed for self cooling. Bolus of Kalka (paste) of all ingredients of [Table 1] (altogether, 250g) was prepared by adding little water, which was added to oil and was continuously stirred for homogenous mixing. Then, 16 parts of potable water (4000mL) were added to the aforementioned vessel and heated over Mandagni (low flame) with continuous stirring. After confirming all the Siddhi Lakshanas (tests of completion), the heating was discontinued and the oil was filtered through double-folded muslin cloth in the warm conditions itself. The filtered Murchhita Tila Taila was filled in an airtight glass bottle and labeled and stored. Similarly, a total of three batches of Murchhita Tila Taila were prepared. These batches were used for Yashtimadhvadi Taila preparation by method 1 [Figure 1].
    Table 1: Ingredients of Tila Taila Murchhana

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    ,
    Figure 1: Images of pharmaceutical preparation of Tila Taila Murchhana

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  2. Preparation of Yashtimadhvadi Taila by Murchhita Tila Taila (MYT): The Murchhita Tila Taila was heated on Mandagni till fumes appeared. Bolus of Kalka of all ingredients mentioned in [Table 2] was added to the Murchhita Tila Taila, which was previously boiled and self cooled, and then the given quantity of milk was also added. Heating was continued on Mandagni (maintaining the temperature) over gas stove. Heating was continued till the Taila becomes moisture free and Sneha Siddhi Lakshanas appear. The prepared Murchhita Yashtimadhvadi Taila was allowed to cool and then filtered. The same procedure was repeated for the preparation of two more batches of Murchhita Yashtimadhvadi Taila[8] [Figure 2].
    Table 2: Ingredients of Yashtimadhvadi Taila by using Murchhita Tila Taila (MYT) and Amurchhita Tila Taila (AYT)

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    ,
    Figure 2: Images of pharmaceutical preparation of Murchhita Yashtimadhvadi Taila

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  3. Preparation of Yashtimadhvadi Taila by Amurchhita Tila Taila (AYT): Amurchhita Tila Taila was heated on Mandagni till fumes appear. Bolus of Kalka of all ingredients mentioned in [Table 3] was added to the Amurchhita Tila Taila, which was previously boiled and self cooled, and then the given quantity of milk was also added. Heating was continued on Mandagni (maintaining the temperature) over gas stove. Heating was continued till the Taila becomes moisture free and Sneha Siddhi Lakshanas form. The prepared Amurchhita Yashtimadhvadi Taila was allowed to cool and then filtered. The same procedure was repeated for the preparation of another two batches of Amurchhita Yashtimadhvadi Taila[8] [Figure 3].
    Table 3: Observations of Tila Taila Murchhana

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    ,
    Figure 3: Images of pharmaceutical preparation of Amurchhita Yashtimadhvadi Taila

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In this study, analytical evaluation of MYT and AYT was carried out to develop preliminary standards. The samples were analyzed, first of all, on the basis of organoleptic characters, that is, sensory organs. These are color, touch, taste, appearance, clarity, and odor.

Physicochemical parameters such as specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter, iodine value, and peroxide value were taken into consideration for the analysis of MYT and AYT sample at Laboratory of Dattatreya Ayurved Rasashala, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital and Research Centre.


  Observations and Results Top


Average 1000mL sesame oil was taken for Murchhana procedure and average 947mL quantity was obtained, which depicts 53mL, that is, 5.3% weight loss. During heating, Murchhana was carried out for three days, the average temperature was 102.66°C, 94.33°C, and 96.66°C on first, second, and third day, respectively, as per reference from API.[10] The temperature was monitored by pyrometer. Total duration of heating for Tila Taila Murchhana for three batches was 9.15h, 9.10h, and 9.5h, respectively [Table 4]. Total duration required for the preparation of MYT and AYT was 10h and 8h 30min with 7.29% and 5.20% weight loss, respectively. The heating procedure was completed in three days. The temperature was mostly maintained on first, second, and third day, which was 100°C and 101°C on first day, 97°C and 96°C on second day, and 99°C and 98°C on third day for MYT and AYT, respectively [Table 4].
Table 4: Average pharmaceutical observations of MYT and AYT

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Samples of Tila Taila, Murchhita Tila Taila, MYT, and AYT were translucent; however, this character was found reduced compared to Tila Taila. Tila Taila had a typical odor of sesame oil, Murchhita Tila Taila had a mixed flavor of sesame oil and C. rotundus, MYT and AYT had a distinguishing smell of milk, Nilotpala Kanda, and sesame oil; however, the extent of smell was more intense in MYT than AYT [Table 5].
Table 5: Average observations of organoleptic characters of Tila Taila, Murchhita Tila Taila, MYT, and AYT

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  Discussion Top


In Panchakarma procedures, these preparations are most commonly used (Ayurvedic penta-bio-purification methods). Murchhana procedure was discovered in the nineteenth century A.D. for enhancing therapeutic potential of medicated fatty preparations. Murchhana is the pharmaceutical refining of oils, aimed at attaining various objectives such as the removal of Aam, impartment of color and odor, longer stability of the oils, and increased therapeutic efficacy.[5] Hence, this work was planned to establish the pharmaceutical standardization of Yashtimadhvadi Taila. The proportion for Sneha Kalpana preparations recorded in Ayurvedic classical texts is 1 part of all herbal drugs together, 4 parts of oil/ghee, and 16 parts of water. The proportion of Yashtimadhvadi Taila mentioned in Vaidya Chintamani is specific, hence that was considered for the preparation of MYT and AYT in this study.

Here, in the classical text of Vaidya Chintamani, the proportion of ingredients, Taila, and Drava Dravya of Yashtimadhvadi Taila is different. Milk is used in place of water.

Such guidelines are available for the preparation of Yashtimadhvadi Taila. According to Sharangadhara Samhita, the preparation of oils should not be completed within a day.[11] Longer the duration of preparation more the absorption of fat-soluble constituents of the ingredients takes places. Thus, the potency of Taila/Ghrita is expected to been enhanced. On the first day after heating of MYT for 4h 15min and AYT for 3h, the mixture was kept as it is without heating. The heating was carried out for three days as mentioned in [Table 4], and gap was given for two nights as per the reference in Vaidya Paribhasha Pradip.[12] This is preferred for the dissolution of active constituents of herbs in oil.

It was observed that the temperature of oil reduced after the addition of herbal ingredients, which may be due to the absorption of temperature from oil to herbs. However, the heating pattern was maintained in such a way that the temperature did not reach nearer to or above 110°C, which was monitored by pyrometer. This may help in avoiding degeneration of herbal phytoconstituents due to high temperature. The duration of heating for Murchhana of Taila on first, second, and third day was nearly same; however, the maintained temperature on the second day was slightly less than that on the first day. Continuous stirring was carried out during the preparation of Murchhana as well as during the preparation of MYT and AYT. Stirring is needed to avoid sticking of particles of herbs at the bottom of the vessel, which may get burned as the temperature at the bottom of the vessel is much higher due to direct contact with fire. Such burning results in unpleasant smell in the final product.

Both MYT and AYT had distinguishing smell of milk, Nilotpala Kanda, and sesame oil; however, the extent of smell was more in MYT than that in AYT, which may represent more absorbed concentration of herbal properties in MYT.

Average loss of weight during preparation was 7.29% in MYT and 5.20% in AYT. The reason for these differences may be due to variation in the proportion of ingredients. There is variation in the weight of the processed and unprocessed oil, this loss may be due to processing and adhesion of oil particles during filtration by cotton cloth. The weight loss can be reduced by more forceful filtration but it may cause filtration of few solid particles from the cloth, which is not expected in the final product. Therefore, it can be said that 5%–8% weight loss during preparation of oil is acceptable. The reasons for avoiding the prerequisite processing of oil might be due to the easily available fresh oil, small-scale manufacturing, simple equipment used, the chances of inclusion of any impurity were less.[13]

According to analytical finding, rancidity was absent in both samples. Specific gravity increased in MYT (0.922) than that in AYT (0.916), which may be due to addition of some active bio-constituents from the herbs used for Murchhana. It can be presumed that due to the process of Murchhana, more active principle may get dissolved in the oil, leading to high-therapeutic efficacy than the Amurchhita samples. The refractive index (RI) of MYT (1.473) was found slightly more than that of AYT (1.471). Increased value of RI in Murchhita sample was found to be more, which may be due to coloration and additional phytoconstituents.[14] Viscosity of MYT (93.87 s/cm2) was more than that of AYT (91.68 m/sec), it may be due to active bio-constituents that were impregnated into oil.

Iodine value indicates the degree of unsaturation of oil. Greater the degree of unsaturation greater will be the possibility of the oil becoming rancid due to atmospheric oxidation.[5] Iodine value of AYT (12.02 mgl2/g) was more than that of MYT (9.152 mgl2/g), which shows the degree of unsaturation. Here lesser iodine value in MYT shows increased shelf life of oil. Saponification value of MYT (212.69 mgKOH/g) was found more than that of AYT (197.83 mgKOH/g). Saponification value gives an idea about the weight of fats/oils. The saponification number and molecular weight of oil are inversely proportional to each other, thus high saponification values indicate that the fat is made up of low-molecular-weight fatty acids and vice versa. Increased saponification value increases the stability of oil.[15] The unsaponified matter in MYT (0.076%) was found to be lesser in comparison to that in AYT (0.086%), which clearly confirms the process of refining of oil. Lesser the unsaponified matter more refined will be the oil. Acid value indicates the amount of free fatty acids present in oil and fat. A high acid value in the oil may lead to early rancidity of the oil. In MYT, lesser acid value was found than that in AYT.[16] Peroxide value analysis is the best known test for analyzing the stability of oils.[17] Peroxide value in the AYT (6.06 mEq /kg) samples comparatively increased than that in the MYT (4.73 mEq /kg) samples, which may show that the MYT will help in increasing the chemical stability of oil due to antioxidants present in the Murchhana Dravya [Table 6]. Iodine value of AYT was more than that of MYT, which shows the degree of unsaturation. Greater the degree of unsaturation greater will be the chances of rancidity. This may conclude that there are antioxidant present more in MYT.
Table 6: Average observations of physiochemical analysis of MYT and AYT

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  Conclusion Top


Murchhana of Tila Taila can be carried out in three days by maintaining average temperature of 102.66°C, 94.37°C, and 96.66°C on first, second, and third day, respectively; however, Murchhana results in average 5.26% loss of oil. MYT and AYT have different organoleptic characters and analytical values, representing their differences in chemical profile, and thus they may also differ in therapeutic potential. The parameters assessed of the samples made after Murchhana process revealed an increase in saponification value, specific gravity, and refractive index, whereas a decrease in iodine value and peroxide value of Murchhita samples indicates more stability and increased shelf life of MYT than that of AYT. Considering all the data recorded, it has been proved that the process of Murchhana has high significance for better therapeutic efficacy. Hence, the process of Murchhana must be strictly included as a prerequisite in the preparation of any medicated oil.

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Conflicts of interest

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  References Top

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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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