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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 93-98

Comparative organoleptic and physicochemical study of roots of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. and Decalepis hamiltonii Wight and Arn


1 Department of Dravyaguna, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital and Research Centre, Wardha, India
2 Department of Dravyaguna, Datta Meghe Ayurved Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Nagpur, India
3 Department of Roganidan, SGR Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Solapur, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication21-Nov-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Parul P Nandgaonkar
Department of Dravyaguna, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital and Research Centre, Salod (H), Wardha, Maharashtra.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JISM.JISM_44_19

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  Abstract 

Background: Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. (Sariva), commonly known as Anantmool, is used in therapeutics in Ayurveda with its unique attributes. From few decades due to the heavy demand and extreme commercial collection from natural habitat of this plant, its natural population has decreased with higher rate and has resulted in the extinction of population. In various Ayurvedic raw drug market and in the leading Ayurvedic pharmacies, the roots of Decalepis hamiltonii, which is considered as Sariva Bheda, are used in place of the roots of H. indicus (Sariva) in Ayurvedic formulations. Though H. indicus is cultivated by special method, still it is a very time-consuming and expensive process. D. hamiltonii is easily cultivated with high yield and is less expensive as compared to H. indicus. Aim: In view of these facts, this study was undertaken to compare physicochemical analysis of H. indicus and D. hamiltonii.Materials and Methods: Field samples of H. indicus and D. hamiltonii were collected, identified, authenticated, and studied for vegetative, pharmacognostic, organoleptic, and physicochemical characters. Observation and Results: The root of H. indicus and D. hamiltonii are easily identified by their organoleptic characters. The physicochemical parameters such as loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, alcohol-soluble extractives, and water-soluble extractive showed some differences. Conclusion: The external morphological characters of both collected field samples are clearly distinguished and identified as H. indicus (L.) R. Br. and D. hamiltonii Wight and Arn, and they also differ on the physicochemical parameters.

Keywords: Decalepis hamiltonii, Hemidesmus indicus, organoleptic study, physicochemical study, Sariva


How to cite this article:
Nandgaonkar PP, Khobragade P, Pargaonkar AS, Nandgaonkar PS. Comparative organoleptic and physicochemical study of roots of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. and Decalepis hamiltonii Wight and Arn. J Indian Sys Medicine 2019;7:93-8

How to cite this URL:
Nandgaonkar PP, Khobragade P, Pargaonkar AS, Nandgaonkar PS. Comparative organoleptic and physicochemical study of roots of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. and Decalepis hamiltonii Wight and Arn. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Feb 17];7:93-8. Available from: http://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2019/7/2/93/271416




  Introduction Top


Sariva, commonly known as Anantmool, plays a key role in therapeutics in Ayurveda with its unique attributes. Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., the source of Sariva belongs to family Asclepiadaceae, which is a slender, twining, or prostrate perennial shrub with cylindrical stems and aromatic roots.[1] They are commonly called the Indian Sarsaparilla.[2] They are common in the open deciduous and scrub forest hedges and on the degraded sites all over India and Sri Lanka.[1] The root and root bark are considered as Raktashodhak (blood purifying), Shothahar (demulcent), Rasayana (tonic), and Mutrajanana (diuretic).[3] It is used in various skin diseases and in several well-known Ayurvedic formulations.[4]Acharya Charaka described Sariva in six MahakashayasVarnya, Kanthya, Stanyashodhana, Jwarahara, Purishsangrahniya, and Dahaprashamnan gana.[5]

From few decades, as the approach toward traditional medicinal herbs has increased, this plant is in heavy demand, and its natural population has decreased with higher rate. This has resulted in the extinction of population of this plant due to extreme commercial collection from natural habitat.[6]H. indicus propagation is usually practiced through seeds; it has a tedious method of collection of root, expensive harvesting, and very low yield in spite of adopting special method of cultivation in bamboo.[7]

Decalepis hamiltonii Wight and Arn., belonging to Apocynaceae family, is a climbing shrub with jointed branches and cylindrical, fleshy, aromatic roots. This plant is found in peninsular India up to an elevation of 1400 m, common in the forests of Western Ghats.[8] The aromatic roots of D. hamiltonii are highly prized for their role in the preparation of natural cold drinks and Ayurvedic drugs.[9] In the field of Ayurveda, it is used as one of the major substitutes for the plant Sariva (H. indicus).[1]

In various Ayurvedic raw drug market, Sariva species D. hamiltonii is sold as Sariva instead of H. indicus.[10] The roots of H. indicus are official in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API); however, D. hamiltonii is not included in the API. In the leading Ayurvedic pharmacies of South India, the roots of D. hamiltonii, which is considered as Sariva Bheda is used in place of the roots of H. indicus in Ayurvedic formulations.[11] Though H. indicus is cultivated by special method, still it is a very time-consuming and expensive process. D. hamiltonii is easily cultivated with high yield and is less expensive as compared to H. indicus.

Owing to the nonavailability of the roots of H. indicus in large quantity, as required by the physicians and drug manufacturers, the roots of D. hamiltonii are used as a substitute for the roots of H. indicus.[11] In the present era of modernization, due to overexploitation of medicinal plants from their natural resources, expensive and tedious method of cultivation and collection, we must find out their alternative sources and use as a substitute drug.

In view of these facts, this study was undertaken to compare organoleptic characters and physicochemical parameters of H. indicus and D. hamiltonii in order to generate scientific evidences, which will be helpful in the emerging market.


  Materials and Methods Top


Procurement of drugs: Collection of field samples: Roots of H. indicus were collected in October 2018, from Dapoli, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India, and those of D. hamiltonii were collected in August 2018, from Agasti Agroved Farms, Sarola Kasar, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India, respectively.

Identification and authentication of plant: The field-collected samples were identified and authenticated from FRLHT (Foundation of Revitalization of Local Health Traditions), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Place of study: This study was conducted in the Mahatma Gandhi Ayurveda College, Hospital and Research Centre, Salod (H), Wardha, Maharashtra, India.

Methods

Examination of vegetative pharmacognostic characters and organoleptic examination of plant: The vegetative pharmacognostic characters of plant and the organoleptic characters such as texture, color, taste, and odor of the roots and powder of H. indicus and D. hamiltonii were studied.

Physicochemical analysis: Both field samples of H. indicus and D. hamiltonii samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis of the following parameters:

  1. Foreign matter


  2. Loss on drying at 105°C


  3. Ash value


  4. Acid-insoluble ash


  5. Water-soluble extractives


  6. Alcohol-soluble extractives


Foreign Matter

A total of 100g of weighed drug was taken for inspection with unaided eye. Any foreign matter found was separated, weighed, and the percentage present was calculated.[12]

Loss on drying

Accurately weighed 2g of the coarsely powdered drug was taken in a dried and weighed porcelain dish. It was kept in hot air oven at 105°C for 5h after which it was taken out, cooled in desiccator, and weighed. Drug was weighed at each 1-h interval, and the drying was continued till constant weight was obtained. Percentage of moisture content (loss on drying) with reference to the air-dried drug was calculated.[12]

Total ash value

Two grams of accurately weighed study sample was taken and transferred to the cleaned, dried, and weighed silica crucible and was subjected to ignition using electric furnace at 450°C until constant weight was obtained. Silica crucible was taken out from the furnace and was allowed to cool in desiccator. After cooling, the weight of the ash obtained was calculated with reference to the air-dried drug.[12]

Acid-insoluble ash

The ash was boiled for 5min with 25mL of dilute hydrochloric acid, the insoluble matter was collected in an ashless filter paper, washed with hot water, and ignited to constant weight. The percentage of acid-insoluble ash with reference to the air-dried drug was calculated.[12]

Water-soluble extractive

Ten grams of the dried coarse powder were macerated with 100mL of distilled water in a closed flask for 24h, shaking frequently during the first 6h, and allowed to stand for 18h. Thereafter, it was filtered rapidly; 25mL of the water extract was transferred to a silica crucible and evaporated to dryness on a water bath, and the drying was completed in an oven at 100°c for approximately 10–15min. It was later cooled in a desiccator and weighed. The extractive value in water was calculated with reference to the air-dried drug.[12]

Alcohol-soluble extractive

Ten grams of the dried coarse powder were macerated with 100mL of ethanol in a closed flask for 24h, shaking frequently during the first 6h, and allowed to stand for 18h. Thereafter, it was filtered rapidly. A total of 25mL of the alcohol extract was transferred to a silica crucible and evaporated to dryness on a water bath, and the drying was completed in an oven at 100°C for approximately 10–15min. It was later cooled in a desiccator and weighed. The extractive value in alcohol was calculated with reference to the air-dried drug.[12]


  Observation and Results Top


Sample A was identified and authenticated as H. indicus (L.) R. Br. (Voucher specimen: FRLH COL. no. 123401), and Sample B as D. hamiltonii Wight and Arn. (Voucher specimen: FRLH COL. no. 123403).


  Discussion Top


External morphological characters of H. indicus and D. hamiltonii shows both are creeper in nature having terete branchlets with milky latex. H. indicus has thickened nodes, whereas D. hamiltonii has swollen winged nodes. H. indicus leaves are of variable shapes, from elliptic ovate to linear lanceolate, whereas D. hamiltonii has ovate, egg-shaped to round-shaped leaves. Both species have opposite leaves. H. indicus has simple lamina with the midvein distinctly white, which is absent in D. hamiltonii. H. indicus has acute to obtuse apex, whereas D. hamiltonii has subacute apex. The inflorescence of both the species has axillary cymes [Table 1], [Figure 1] and [Figure 2]. These vegetative pharmacognostic characters help in differentiating H. indicus from D. hamiltonii.
Table 1: Comparative vegetative pharmacognostic characters of plant of Hemidesmus indicus and Decalepis hamiltonii

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Figure 1: Habitat of Hemidesmus indicus

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Figure 2: Habitat of Decalepis hamiltonii

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On organoleptic study of roots of H. indicus and D. hamiltonii, it was found that there is a clear difference in the texture of roots. The root of H. indicus has tough surface and numerous cracks on it, whereas that of D. hamiltonii has slightly tough surface with wrinkles and longitudinal ridges. H. indicus root has dull red to brown color, whereas D. hamiltonii root has dull brown color. Comparing the size of roots, it was found that H. indicus roots are wiry thin than the roots of D. hamiltonii. The roots of H. indicus and D. hamiltonii are found to have similar taste. The characteristic fragrance of roots of H. indicus is mild comparatively to the fragrance of roots of D. hamiltonii [Table 2]. Both species, H. indicus and D. Hamiltonii are easily and clearly distinguished on the basis of organoleptic characters [Figure 3] and [Figure 4].
Table 2: Comparative organoleptic characters of root of Hemidesmus indicus and Decalepis hamiltonii

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Figure 3: Roots of Hemidesmus indicus

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Figure 4: Roots of Decalepis hamiltonii

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The organoleptic study of powder of roots of H. indicus and D. hamiltonii shows that there is a difference in the color of powder of roots. H. indicus root powder is brown in color, whereas D. hamiltonii root powder has light brown color. The root powder of H. indicus and D. hamiltonii has similar taste. It has mild characteristic fragrance in comparison to the fragrance of root powder of D. hamiltonii [Table 3]. Considering the differences between the powder of root of H. indicus and D. hamiltonii, are distinguished on the basis of their organoleptic characters.
Table 3: Comparative organoleptic characters of powder of root of Hemidesmus indicus and Decalepis hamiltonii

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The values of physicochemical analysis of roots of H. indicus are within the standard values as per the API [Table 4]. As the species is not included in the API, the values of roots of D. hamiltonii are within the reference values as per Nayar et al.[11] [Table 5].
Table 4: Physicochemical analysis of powder of root of Hemidesmus indicus

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Table 5: Physicochemical analysis of powder of root of Decalepis hamiltonii

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As both the root samples were self-collected from field, foreign matter was found to be nil. The physicochemical parameters such as loss on drying at 105°C, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water-soluble extractive show significant difference between H. indicus and D. hamiltonii. This shows that the two drugs differ on these physicochemical parameters. There was no significant difference in the alcohol-soluble extractive values between the two drugs [Table 6] and [Graph 1].
Table 6: Comparative physicochemical analysis of powder of root of Hemidesmus indicus and Decalepis hamiltonii

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Graph 1: Comparative physicochemical analysis of powder of root of Hemidesmus indicus and Decalepis hamiltonii

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  Conclusion Top


According to the critical review about Sariva, H. indicus is found abundantly in particular regions of India but due to difficulty in collecting it and its low yield, it is not available in large quantities in the herbal market. After various market surveys, in pan India, it was found that mostly the root of D. hamiltonii is sold as Sariva. On critical review, D. hamiltonii is easily cultivated with high yield as compared to H. indicus. Substitution of herbs achieves many goals through basic idea to provide similar, easily available, cost-effective, and most appropriate option for the clinical condition. The external morphological characters of both collected field samples are clearly distinguished and identified as H. indicus (L.) R. Br. and D. hamiltonii Wight and Arn, and they also differ on the physicochemical parameters.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Sreelekha M, Jirovetz L, Shafi P. Comparative study of the essential oils from Hemidesmus indicus and Decalepis hamiltonii. Asian J Chem 2007;19:4942-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Gupta AK, Tandon N, Sharma M. Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol 2. New Delhi, India: ICMR; 2005. p. 119-25.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Tandon N, Sharma P, Srivastava S, Shukla A, Kumar S. Reviews on Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol 12. New Delhi, India: ICMR;2013. p. 229.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Mishra B, Vaisya R. Bhavprakasha Nighantu, Part 1st. Varanasi, India: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Bhawan; 2013. p. 425-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kadam VP, Sangoram AM. Sariva (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.)—A review from ancient literature. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;5:401-11.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Disabled World [Internet]; Acharya D, Sancheti G, Shrivastava A, Pawar S. Rare Herb of Patalkot: Hemidesmus indicus. New York: Lynn and Ian Langtree; 2004-2017. Available from: https://www.disabled-world.com/artman/publish/hemidesmus-indicus.shtml. [Last accessed on 2018 Feb 7].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Balachandran I. Techniques in commercial cultivation, scientific harvesting and preservation of medicinal plants. Available from: www.keralaagriculture.gov.in/htmle/aez/kottakkal.ppt. [Last accessed on 2018 Feb 7].  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Tandon N, Sharma M. Reviews on Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol 9. New Delhi, India: ICMR; 2009. p. 195.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Reddy MC, Murthy KSR. A review on Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. J Med Plants Res 2013;7:3014-29.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Sastry JLN. Dravyagun Vijnana. Vol 2. 2nd ed. Varanasi, India: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2005. p. 348-51.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Nayar RC, Pattanshetty JK, Mary Z, Yoganarasimhan SN. Pharmacognostical studies on the root of Decalepis hamiltonii Wt. and Am., and comparison with Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. Proc Indian Acad Sci1978;87:37-48.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India Part I. Appendix 2. Vol 1. New Delhi, India: MoHFW; 2001. p. 143.  Back to cited text no. 12
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Graph 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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