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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 99-103

Correlation of Agni with Koshtha, Prakruti, and Mala


1 Department of Samhita and Siddhanta, Datta Meghe Ayurved Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Wanadongri, Hingna Road, Nagpur, India
2 Departmet of Sharir Rachana, Datta Meghe Ayurved Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Wanadongri, Nagpur, India
3 Departmet of Samhita and Siddhanta, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital and Research Centre, Salod (Hirapur), Wardha, (Maharashtra), India

Date of Web Publication21-Nov-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Namrata B Chouragade
Department of Samhita and Siddhanta, Datta Meghe Ayurved Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Wanadongri, Hingna Road, Nagpur (Maharashtra).
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JISM.JISM_25_19

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  Abstract 

Background: Agni (digestive capacity) is an important factor for digestion and metabolism in our body. Ingested food is to be digested, absorbed, and assimilated, which is unavoidable for the maintenance of life, and is performed by the Agni. Agni resides and functions in the body in the form of Pitta (a physiological humor). Wellness and illness of an individual depends on the proper and improper functions of the Agni. Hence, Agni is said to be the Mool (base) of life. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 healthy volunteers were randomly selected, and their Agni, Koshtha (nature of bowel), Prakruti (physical and mental temperament), and Mala Parikshan (stool examination) were examined through prevalidated Case Record Proforma (CRP), and the results were recorded, and correlation of status of Agni with Koshtha, Prakruti, and Sama-Nirama Mala Parikshan was conducted. Results and Conclusion: The result shows correlation of Agni with Koshtha, Prakruti, and Mala type (Sama and Nirama), which is in tune with the principles described in Samhitas (basic text of Ayurveda), and it is evident that Agni is the most important factor for health as described in the definition of health in Sushruta Samhita.

Keywords: Agni, Pitta, Prakruti, Sama-Nirama Mala


How to cite this article:
Chouragade NB, Giri DM, Chouragade BC. Correlation of Agni with Koshtha, Prakruti, and Mala. J Indian Sys Medicine 2019;7:99-103

How to cite this URL:
Chouragade NB, Giri DM, Chouragade BC. Correlation of Agni with Koshtha, Prakruti, and Mala. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jan 26];7:99-103. Available from: http://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2019/7/2/99/271409




  Introduction Top


Ayurveda aims at prevention and cure of diseases. Acharya Sushruta defined “Aarogya” (health) as an equilibrium or balanced state of Dosha (physiological humors), Agni (digestive power), Dhatu (fundamental tissues), and Mala (stool), pleasant state of Atma (soul), Indriya (sensory organs), and Mana (mind) is healthy state.[1]

Agni is one of the basic concepts of Ayurveda. This Siddhānta (concept) provides fundamental knowledge for understanding of the theories of Ayurveda regarding Ahara Pachana (digestion), Dhatu Utpatti (tissue formation), Vyadhi Utpatti (development of disease), and Ayu Parigyana (age). With the help of a particular Agni, the body substances get nourished and can perform their functions normally. This can be understood in the terms of wear and tear phenomena of each body cell. It is quite clear that none of the body cells can do anything without the help of Agni, hence Prashama (alleviation) or Prakopa (aggravation) of Dosha, Dhātu, and Mala are dependent on the status of Agni. In other words, it can be said that equilibrium of Dosha can be maintained through Agni.[2]

Any disturbance in the equilibrium of Dhatus is known as disease, and on the contrary, the state of their equilibrium is health.[3] According to various Samhitas (classical text of Ayurveda), “Agnimandya” (diminished digestive capacity) is the basic cause for pathogenesis of diseases.[4]Agni is the factor responsible for any kind of transformation. It is a known fact that at every moment of time, multiple transformations take place in the body. These may be biochemical or biophysical or any other type of biotransformation. Owing to these constant transformations, body grows, develops, and is destroyed.[5]

The concept of Dosha-Dhatu-Mala is important to understand the body functions. Malas are the metabolic end products, which are to be excreted. Malas are divided into two major types, that is, Sharirika Mala (body wastes) and Dhatu Mala (metabolic wastes). Sharirika Malas are further classified into three types, that is, Mutra (urine), Purisha (stool), and Sweda (sweat), and Dhatu Malas are further classified into seven types.[6] Both Purisha and Mutra are formed from the food.[7] After digestion, the Sarabhaga (nutrient portion) are absorbed and the remaining undigested part becomes solid and that is called as Purisha. If Malas are not excreted from the body, the metabolic process will be impaired and this will ultimately lead to the formation of malformed tissues and hence diseases. Purisha Pariksha (stool examination) is included in Ashtavidha Pariksha (eightfold examinations).[8] Examination of stool in Ayurveda texts is not only limited up to the examination of physical characteristics such as Rupa (color), Matra (quantity), Gandha (odor), Rachana (consistency), and froth. Besides these, a specialized technique of stool examination, that is, Jala Nimajjana Purisha Pariksha (sinking of stool in water) has been described to detect the presence of Aama (undigested metabolite), thereby inferring the status of Agni in the body.[9]

Agni is divided into 13 types according to their functions and site of action. These are as following:

  1. Jatharagni (basic digestive power): Agni present in the Jathara (gastrointestinal tract).


  2. Bhutagni: Agni present in liver.


  3. Dhatwagni: seven types of Agni present in their respective Dhatus.


Jatharagni plays an important role in transforming food to its constituent elements, whereby it is absorbed into the liver and is used to build up the body. Finally, food gets separated into the Prasad (essence portion) and the Kitta (waste products) in our body.[10]

Agni is influenced by the vitiation of Doshas and results in Vishamagni (irregular digestive capacity), Tikshanagni (intense digestive capacity), Mandagni (low digestive capacity), and Samagni (normal digestive capacity).[11]

  1. Samagni: The Samagni is an indicator of health in an individual, it reflects that all the food materials entered into gastrointestinal tract are digested to its constituent element and are completely absorbed by the intestinal villi so as to assimilate and produce Dhatu uniformly.


  2. Vishamagni: This Agni is vitiated by Vata Dosha and becomes irregular in nature, sometimes digests the food quickly and sometimes slowly.


  3. Tikshanagni: This Agni is vitiated by Pitta Dosha (physiological humor). Tikshanagni is a state of very quick digestion of food, regardless of the type of food.


  4. Mandagni: Mandagni is diminished digestive capacity. Those who are having Mandagni eat very little and are unable to digest the smallest amount of food.


The deviated Agni hampers digestion process. Aama (undigested metabolite) is the intermediate metabolic product formed due to diminished power of Agni. Aama due to its sticky nature obstructs the channels of the body, vitiates Doshas, contaminates tissues and disturbs body functions, and cause diseases.[12]

Ayurveda has a novel concept of assessing the status of Agni through Mala Parikshan. Jala Nimajjana Purisha Pariksha is to detect the presence of Aama in the body and the status of Agni. Aama is considered as an important cause not only for the gastrointestinal disorders but also as the cause of many systemic diseases. To detect the early presence of Aama, Jala Nimajjana Purisha Pariksha is used. If stool sinks down in water, it indicates the presence of Aama in the body. If it floats in water, then it shows the absence of Aama in body.[13]

Health and disease depends on one’s Agni, hence deciding the quality of Agni, which affects digestion, absorption, assimilation, and metabolism, is of prime importance.[14]Prakruti, Koshtha, and Mala are the factors, which also decide the health and are affected by Agni, so it is important to study the correlation between Agni, Prakruti, Koshtha, and Mala.


  Aims and Objectives Top


  1. Aim of study: was to find out correlation between Agni, Koshtha, Prakruti, and Mala.


  2. Objectives
    • a. To assess the status of Agni, Koshtha, and Prakruti in healthy volunteers.


    • b. To assess the status Mala-Sama (abnormal) or Nirama (normal).


    • c. To correlate the status of Agni with Koshtha, Prakruti, and Sama-Nirama Mala Parikshan.



  Materials and Methods Top


Materials:

  1. Participants: Sixty healthy subjects were randomly selected from the Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College Hospital and Research Centre (MGACH&RC).


  2. Methodology: Case Record Pro forma (CRP) was prepared for the assessment of Agni, Koshtha, and Prakruti and was validated by experts. The study was completed under the following steps:


[INLINE 1]

  1. Definition case: Healthy volunteers (clinically normal) of either sex in the age group 20–40 years


  2. Locus of study: Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College Hospital and Research Centre


  3. Study design: Open, single-arm study


  4. Type of study: Observational study


  5. Sample size: Sixty


  6. Inclusion criteria: Healthy volunteers of either sex in the age group 20–40 years were selected


  7. Exclusion criteria:
    • A known case of any surgical or medical, major or minor illness


    • Subjects with addiction of alcohol, tobacco, smoking, kharra, and so on


    • Pregnant woman and lactating mothers


    • Subjects performing shift duties


  8. Assessment criteria:
    • Agni, Koshtha, and Prakruti Pariksha


    • Sama and Nirama Mala Parikshan



  Observation and Results Top


The results according to the data obtained by Agni, Koshtha, Prakruti, and Mala Parikshan of 60 participants are as follows:

Of 60 participants, 30 (50%) participants were of Mandagni, 12 (20%) were of Tikshanagni, 15 (25%) were of Vishamagni, and 3 (5%) were of Samagni [Table 1].
Table 1: Status of Agni in all participants

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After Koshtha Parikshan, 17 (28.33%) showed Krura Koshtha, 12 (20%) showed Mrudu Koshtha, 28 (46.66%) showed Madhya Koshtha, whereas 3 (5%) showed Sama Koshtha [Table 2].
Table 2: Status of Koshtha in all participants

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In this study, 18 (30%) participants were having Vata-dominant Prakruti (Vata-Pitta-8 and Vata-Kapha 10), 11 (18.33%) were having Pitta-dominant Prakruti (Pitta-Vata-5 and Pitta-Kapha-6), and 31 (51.66%) were having Kapha-dominant Prakruti (Kapha-Vata-16 and Kapha-Pitta-15) [Table 3].
Table 3: Status of Prakruti in all participants

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After Mala Parikshan, Sama Mala was observed in 42 (70%) participants, whereas Nirama Mala was observed in 18 (30%) participants [Table 4].
Table 4: Status of Mala in all participants

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During correlating Agni and Mala, of 30 (50%) participants of Mandagni, Sama Mala was observed in 24 (40%), whereas 6 (10%) showed Nirama Mala. Among 12 (20%) of Tikshanagni, 10 (16.66%) showed Sama Mala and 2 (3.33%) showed Nirama Mala. Of 15 (25%) participants of Vishamagni, 7 (11.66%) had Sama Mala and 8 (13.33%) had Nirama Mala. Among 3 (5%) participants of Samagni, Sama Mala was observed in 1 (1.66%) participant and Nirama Mala was observed in 2 (3.33%) participants [Table 5].
Table 5: Correlation between Agni and Mala

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During correlating Agni and Koshtha, among 30 (50%) Mandagni participants, 3 (5%) Krura Koshthas, 2 (3.33%) Mrudu Koshthas, and 25 (41.66%) Madhyam Koshthas were found. In 12 (20%) Tikshanagni participants, 1 (1.6%) Krura Koshtha, 9 (15%) Mrudu Koshthas, 1 (1.6%) Madhyam Koshtha, and 1 (1.6%) Sama Koshtha were present. Among 15 (25%) Vishamagni participants, 13 (21.66%) Krura Koshthas, 1 (1.66%) Mrudu Koshtha, and 1 (1.6%) Sama Koshtha were found. Among 3 (5%) Samagni participants, 2 (3.33%) Madhyam and 1 (1.6%) Sama Koshtha were observed [Table 6].
Table 6: Correlation between Agni and Koshtha

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After correlation of Agni and Prakruti results among 30 (50%) Mandagni participants, 4 (6.4%) Vata dominant, 1 (1.66%) Pitta dominant, and 25 (41.66%) Kapha dominant were observed. Among 15 (25%) Tikshanagni participants, results were 2 (3.2%) Vata dominant, 8 (13.33%) Pitta dominant, and 2 (3.2%) Kapha dominant. Among 15 (25%) Vishamagni participants, 11 (18.33%) were Vata dominant, 1 (1.66%) Pitta dominant, and 3 (4.8%) Kapha dominant. Among three (5%) participants of Samagni, one participant of all the three categories was found [Table 7].
Table 7: Correlation between Agni and Prakruti

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  Discussion Top


Ayurveda professes retaining and restoring of health as its prime aim, and focuses on measures to be adopted so that health can be maintained. The most comprehensive definition of the health as given by Acharya Sushruta comprises Dosha, Dhatu, Agni, and Mala as its key physical factors and Atma, Mana, and Indriya as its subtle invisible physiological factors. The balance between these two factors is essential. This study was undertaken to study the relationship between physical factors, specially Agni, Dosha predominance and their effect on Mala. Ayurved has advocated Mala Parikshan rather than Dhatu Parikshan. The Mala Parikshan is based on simple observation in which a formed free floating fecal matter is considered as Nirama Mala, whereas a sticky sinking foul smelling Mala is a defective one, that is, Sama. These indicators give us the condition of Agni, which is the prime factor for digestion of food and its assimilation, so as to nourish the Dhatus, which will maintain the structural stability of the body. Thus, it is observed that the individuals with Tikshanagni had Nirama Mala, whereas those with Mandagni had Sama Mala (80%) and the individuals with Vishamagni showed 46% Sama Mala. However, in case of Samagni, the Mala was found to be Nirama in most of the occasions. It was also observed that the Koshtha is also related to the condition of Agni and Mala. In this study, all participants were students from different parts of Maharashtra and they had different traditions, cultures, and practices, which corresponds with the concept of Desh (place), as described by Acharya Charak in Kalpa Sthan Madanphala Adhyaya. Thus, this study paves a way for understanding the concept of Agni so that health can be customized for an individual based on the condition of Dosha.

In this study, of 60 participants, 30 (50%) of the participants were assessed as Mandagni because of altered lifestyle and faulty food habits, not following the Ahar Vidhi Visheshatayani (rules of dietetics) [Table 1]. Nearly 50% of the cases were assessed as Madhyam Koshtha because of Kapha dominancy. Kapha-dominant Prakruti was observed in approximately 50% of the participants [Table 2]. Approximately 70% of the participants were observed with Sama Mala because of irregular food habits and faulty food items. Agni gets hampered and digestion process ends with Aama formation, and the presence of Aama is expressed in the body in the form of Sama Mala [Table 4], and in Mandagni participants, 40% showed the presence of Sama Mala because diminished Agni was unable to digest all the food completely.

Rajesh Ukey and Anukul Chandrakar in the article “A review on Purisha Pariksha in Ayurveda” also reported that Purisha Pariksha is one important method of examination to know the presence of Aama in Purisha, and it has been described under the Jala Nimajjana Pariksha.[15] This method is a definite and instant method to detect the presence of Aama in stool by observing the sinking and floating behavior of the stool on water.

Ohol et.al.[16] concluded in their article “A review on relation between Prakruti and Agni” that there is no relation between Prakruti and Agni except Pitta Prakruti and Tikshanagni because it varies with external environmental factors such as seasons and diurnal change.


  Conclusion Top


From the this study of 60 participants, it can be concluded that maximum number of Vishamagni participants were having Krura Koshtha, Vata-dominant Prakruti, and Nirama Mala. Mandagni participants were having Madhyam Koshtha, Kapha-dominant Prakruti, and Sama Mala. Tikshanagni participants were having Mrudu Koshtha, Pitta-dominant Prakruti, and Sama Mala. Samagni participants were very rare, having Madhyam Koshtha, Pitta-dominant Prakruti, and Nirama Mala.


  Future Scope Top


The study shows that the relationship of Dosha with that of Agni and Doshas is influenced by Ahar and Vihar. Thus, a right Ahar along with the rules of dietetics as propounded by Acharya Charak in Rasavimana are to be implemented so that health can be maintained. Similarly, the Vihar (lifestyle) should be modified.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Sushruta , Sushruta Samhita, Shastri A, editor. Sutrasthan 15/41. In: Sushruta Sushruta Samhita. Vol. I. Varanasi, India: Choukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2009. p. 354.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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Sharma R, Dash B, editors. Chikitsasthan 15/39–40. In: Agnivesh Charak Samhita. Vol. III. Varanasi, India: Choukhamba Orientalia; 2005. p. 1872.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Sharma R, Dash B, editors. Chikitsasthan 15/13–14. In: Agnivesh Charak Samhita. Vol. III. Varanasi, India: Choukhamba Orientalia; 2005. p. 1866.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Shukla V, Tripathi R, editors. Chikitsasthan 15/50–52. In: Agnivesh Charak Samhita. Vol. I. Reprint ed. Delhi, India: Choukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan; 2005. p. 369.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Anonymous, Tripathi I, Tripathi D, editors. Yogratnakar. Reprint ed. Varanasi, India: Choukhamba Ayurved Prakashan; 2007. p. 4.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Shastri A, editor. Sutra sthan 15/47. In: Sushruta Sushruta Samhita. Vol. I. Reprint ed. Varanasi, India: Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan; 2010. p. 130.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Uikey R, Kar AC. A review on Purisha Pariksha in Ayurveda. AYU 2015;36:125-9.  Back to cited text no. 15
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
16.
Ohol S . A review on relation prakruti and agni. Int J Ayur Med 2013;4:264-71.  Back to cited text no. 16
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]



 

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Introduction
Aims and Objectives
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