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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 142-145

Hepatoprotective action of Nagdantyadi ghrita: A literature review


1 Department of Agadtantra, Dr. Rajendra Gode Ayurved College, Hospital & Research Center, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Agadtantra, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College Hospital and Research Centre, Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission04-Dec-2019
Date of Decision16-Jan-2020
Date of Acceptance23-Jan-2020
Date of Web Publication19-Feb-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sonali P Chalak
Department of Agadtantra, MGACH & RC, Wardha, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JISM.JISM_55_19

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  Abstract 

Background: Ayurveda, an ancient system of medicine with rich heritage and antiquity, is well known since Vedic period. The use of Nagdantyadi ghrita (NG) and its ingredients has been well-defined in ancient Ayurveda literature Charaka Samhita. Aims: This study aimed (1) to support the pharmacological potential of NG and its ingredients with scientific results, and (2) to explore hepatoprotective action of NG. Materials and Methods: Various Samhitas, such as Charaka Samhita, Ashtanga Hridaya, Bhavprakash Nighantu, and articles were referred for this literature study. Observations: The literature of NG explores the mechanism of action of its content. Various drugs mentioned in this polyherbal formulation are purgative, anti-inflammatory, and digestive in nature, which helps to get rid of the toxins as well as hepatic disorder as soon as medication is given to the patient. Conclusion: Ingredients of NG are proven to possess hepatoprotective action in context of Ayurveda literature.

Keywords: Atharva Veda, Ayurveda, Nagdantyadi Ghrita, purgative, Samhita


How to cite this article:
Gawai AA, Chalak SP. Hepatoprotective action of Nagdantyadi ghrita: A literature review. J Indian Sys Medicine 2019;7:142-5

How to cite this URL:
Gawai AA, Chalak SP. Hepatoprotective action of Nagdantyadi ghrita: A literature review. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Apr 4];7:142-5. Available from: http://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2019/7/3/142/278720




  Introduction Top


Many drugs are being sold without mentioning proper dose on the bottles and strips of the medicine over the counter without doctor’s prescription, which after improper ingestion can lead to hepatotoxicity.[1] In this scenario, these kind of medicines or low potent poisons which comes under the Gara visha (artificial poison) as per Ayurveda. The use of Nagdantyadi ghrita (NG) and its ingredients has been well defined in ancient Ayurveda literature Charaka Samhita (23/241) with reference to Gara visha management. There is a reference of Gara visha in the literature of Ashtanga Hridaya, which states that Gara visha is a combination of parts of the body and excreta of different animals, incompatible drugs, ashes, and poisonous substance of mild potency.[2] Further, they have mentioned various ill effects of Gara visha, such as person becomes emaciated, weak digestive capacity, fever because of enlargement of Udar (abdomen), Yakrut (liver), and Pleeha (spleen), disorders of liver and spleen, feeble voice, lazy, develops swelling, and dryness of feet.[2] Hence, from the aforementioned signs and symptoms, one can infer that Gara visha produces hepatotoxicity. After elaborating Gara visha in detail, Acharya Charaka has mentioned NG (polyherbal medicated butter) in the context of management of Gara visha (artificial poison), snake poison, and insect bite.[3] After entering the body, the poison immediately vitiates the blood, then simultaneously it vitiates all the Tridosha (fundamental body substance) and its respective sites, and at last proves to be fatal for an individual after it enters the Hridaya (heart). This is how Visha prabhava (effect of poison) happens on the body.[4] According to Acharya Sushruta, the Utpatti (origin) of Yakrut and Pleeha is by Rakta (blood).[5] Its functions are mainly ascribed toward Rakta. Yakrut and Pleeha are considered as the Moola of Raktavaha-srotas. From the aforementioned description, one can infer that Yakrut and Rakta have a relation (Samavaya sambandha). Therefore, vitiation of Rakta will also result in derangement in the functions of Yakrut and vice versa.[5] Hence, to overcome Gara visha and liver ailments, Ayurveda has remedy in the form of NG. NG (clarified butter made from the buffalo milk) is mainly the Ayurveda dosage forms, which is prepared according to the prescribed formula, in which Ghrita is boiled with the required Kashayas (liquid extract obtained by decoctions) and the Kalkas (pastes of drugs) to facilitate the absorption of the active therapeutic principles of the ingredients, which are meant to be incorporated in the formulation.[6] This lipid-based polyherbal formulation has the potential to cross the blood–brain barrier and can result in desired effects on brain tissue. It is assumed that synergism of these herbal drugs in the preparation of NG and extraction of lipid-soluble extractives of these drugs in Ghrita may show cumulative positive effect on Yakrut vikar (liver ailments) and artificial poison.


  Materials and Methods Top


Relevant literature was collected to explore NG through search carried out on various web pages and sites such as Google Scholar, Medscape, BMC Medicine, MEDLINE database, ScopeMed, and other relevant information was obtained using keywords such as Ghrita, Nagdanti, Danti, Dravanti, and Ayurveda. Literature was also extracted from various Ayurveda treatises, textbooks of Ayurveda, and available dissertations/thesis, and various research articles were also investigated.

Nagdantyadi Ghrita

Each ingredient of NG individually contains a lot of medicinally active constituents as mentioned in the Ayurveda texts. Ingredients of NG are Nagdanti (Croton oblongifolius Roxb.), Trivrit (Operculina turpethum Linn.), Danti (Baliospermum montanum), Dravanti (Croton tiglium Linn.), Snuhi (Euphorbia neriifolia), Madanphala (Randia spinosa Poir.), Gomutra (cow urine), and Mahisha Sarpi (clarified butter of buffalo milk). According to the literature of Ayurveda, it is said that the cumulative effect of these ingredients is seen in final product, that is, NG. Hence, probably, this Ghrita is useful in the treatment of Gara visha with reference to Yakrut. Ghee, included in Chatush sneha (four types of unctuous food), which is obtained from cow’s milk, has a specific property, that is, it enhances its properties along with the properties of other drugs mixed with it without losing its own natural properties.[7]

Drug Literature Review

Nagdanti: Ayurveda has categorized it in Arkadi Varga. Nagdanti is indicated in Udara (abdominal disorder), Gulma, Kushtha (skin disease), Krimi (worm), and Sotha (edema). In south Konkan folk, Nagdanti bark is used in hepatomegaly and malarial fever.[8]

Trivrit: O. turpethum Linn. Silva Manso, also called as Tihudi/Trivrit because of the triangular shape stem, is an Indian Ayurveda herb.[9] The root bark of the plant contains glycosidic resin. It also contains a large number of other metabolites, which are saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenolics, as well as there is little amount of essential oil, glucose, and fructose.[10] Because it implies as a potent medicinal plant, it is also used for several medicinal purposes. Often, the root, bark, and seed of this herb are used for the management of several diseases, including jaundice (liver ailment).[11] The laxative effect of Trivrit is mainly due to the presence of turpentine.[12] And owing to this laxative property, this drug might be useful against the harmful hepatotoxic agents by eliminating them from the body.

Danti: Almost all parts of Danti are of medicinal value and are used traditionally for the management of various diseases.[13] The roots of the plant possess various properties such as purgative, anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, febrifuge, and tonic.[14] They are also proven to be effective in constipation, jaundice, leprosy, and skin diseases.[15] Its anticancer activity is also proven.[16] In another study, hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of roots of B. montanum was evaluated using paracetamol-induced liver damage model, which further proved to be moderate effective as hepatoprotective in albino rats than standard drug in histopathology report.[17]

Jayapal (Dravanti): Jayapal is C. tiglium Linn. This belongs to Euphorbiaceae family. Jayapal is commonly known as Jamalgota. It is considered as purgative and Vishaghna (anti-poisonous). It is described in Upavisha Varga in Ayurveda. Major chemical constituents are β-sitosterol, phorbol 12-tiglate-13-decanoate, and tiglyol. It is indicated in Jalodara (ascitis), Sotha, and Krimi.[8]

Snuhi: Snuhi is one of the potent and useful drugs in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Various properties attributed to Snuhi by various authors are presented in [Table 1].[8]Snuhi is indicated in Pandu roga, Udara, Gulma, Kushtha, Sotha, Anaha, Udavarta, and Asmari. Kaiyadeva Nighantu, Bhavprakash Nighantu, and Shaligram Nighantu have indicated Snuhi in maximum diseases. Snuhi has purgative action,[18] and it is also indicated in Visha (poison).[19] Its hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, and wound-healing activities have also been proven.[20]
Table 1: Ingredients of Nagdantyadi ghrita and its properties

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Madanphala: In the Vedic literature, the thorns of Madana are mentioned, and in case of vegetable poison, Madanphala is given to induce vomiting. Its chemical constituents are citric and tartaric acids, randianin, randia acid, linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids. Madanphala is indicated in Visha roga (poison), Sotha (edema), Kushtha (skin diseases), and Jvara (fever).[8]

Mahish Sarpi (butter from buffalo milk): Buffalo’s milk is good for those having very powerful Agni (digestive fire) and insomnia. It is heaviest than cow’s milk and it is cold in potency. Hence, Mahish Sarpi is also heavy to digest and cold in potency as it is made from buffalo milk. Ghrita (butter) is best among all sneha dravya (fatty material). Ghrita is useful for improving intelligence, memory, digestion, long life, sexual vigor, eyes, pleasant voice, disorders of Vata and Pitta, poison, and insanity.[21]

Gomutra: In Rig Veda (10/15), cow’s urine (CU) is believed to be as effective as nectar. In Sushruta Samhita (45/221) and in Charaka Samhita, several medicinal properties of CU have been mentioned such as weight loss, reversal of various cardiac and renal diseases, poor digestion, ache in stomach, loose motion, edema, jaundice, anemia, and skin diseases including vitiligo. Gomutra is capable of removing all the imbalances (Vata/Pitta/Kapha) in the body, thus maintaining the general health.[22] In Ayurveda, Gomutra is claimed to be effective in the treatment of fever, liver ailments, anemia, and cancer.[23] CU contains iron, calcium, phosphorus, carbonic acid, potash, ammonia, manganese, iron, sulfur, potassium, urea, uric acid, amino acids, enzymes, cytokine, and lactose.[24]


  Discussion Top


The literature of NG explores the mechanism of action of its content. The ingredients of NG are Nagdanti, Trivrit, Danti, Dravanti, Snuhi, Madanphala, Mahish Sarpi, and Gomutra. The individual drug profile shows some common properties, which are predominant of Katu-Tikta Rasa, Laghu-Tikshna Guna, and Katu Vipaka. This herbal remedy is capable of eliminating toxic compounds from the body as various drugs mentioned in this polyherbal formulation are purgative, which is very beneficial to eliminate excess/impure Pitta saturated in body, which causes numerous liver ailments such as jaundice, Kamala, Pandu, and indigestion. NG, also possesses anti-inflammatory, digestive properties, which help to get rid of the toxins, liver ailments, as soon as medication is given to the patient by maintaining the balance of Pitta. According to modern science, liver plays a vital role in the digestion process by producing various digestive enzymes. The literature of NG explores the mechanism of action of its content. In this literature study, it was also found that various drugs in NG have Bhedan (piercing) and Deepan (increases digestive fire) properties, which ultimately helps in the process of digestion by eliminating the saturated stools (toxin) and increasing the digestive fire. As various drugs mentioned in this polyherbal formulation are purgative, anti-inflammatory, and digestive in nature, it helps to get rid of the toxins as soon as medication is given to the patient. Once toxin overload is eliminated from the body, it will surely help in the normal functioning of liver. As mentioned earlier by Acharya Charaka, metabolization of Gara visha takes time; hence, aforementioned properties of this formulation help to manage the overload of toxins on liver and prevent the patient from various diseases or bad effects of Gara visha because of which one can infer that NG possesses a hepatoprotective property.


  Conclusion Top


This study concludes that the ingredients of NG possess pharmacological and therapeutic potential in the context of Ayurveda literature. The other reason behind the use of these ingredients of NG can be justified from further research work on patients or on animals. It has been proven that the ingredients of NG possess hepatoprotective and many other therapeutic uses, which are still to be explored.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Kohli KR, Nipanikar SU, Kadbhane KP. A comprehensive review on Trivrit (Operculina turpethum syn. Ipomoea turpethum). Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2010;1:443-52.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Chopra RN, Chopra IC, Handa KL, Kapur LD. Chopra’s Indigenous Drugs of India. Calcutta, India: UN Dhur and Sons; 1958.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Mali RG, Wadekar RR. Baliospermum montanum (Danti): Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology—A review. Int J Green Pharm 2008;194-9.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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