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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 217-223

Knowledge, awareness, and attitudes about organ donation among adults in Deoli taluka of Wardha district


Department of Kriya Sharir, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College Hospital and Research Centre, Salod (H), Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission09-Jan-2020
Date of Decision01-Feb-2020
Date of Acceptance10-Feb-2020
Date of Web Publication14-Apr-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jagruti N Chaple
Department of Kriya Sharir, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College Hospital and Research Centre, Salod (Hirapur), Wardha, Maharashtra.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JISM.JISM_62_19

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  Abstract 

Background: Organ transplantation is the most favored treatment for many of the end-stage organ diseases. The necessity for the organ transplantation is higher than the availability. For the transplantation program to be successful, awareness about organ donation is considered necessary and people must have a positive attitude toward donating organs. Aim: This study aimed to assess the awareness and attitudes about organ donation among the rural population and to estimate the sociodemographic factors linked with their awareness. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, awareness, and attitudes about organ donation among populace in Deoli taluka, Wardha, Maharashtra, India. Study Setting and Design: This was a community-based survey study carried out in Deoli taluka, Wardha. Study included persons older than 21 years. Arranged questionnaire was used to collect the outcome. The questionnaire was translated in local language to make them friendly and easy to understand. The sample size taken was convenient and feasible. Materials and Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study was held among young adults older than 21 years in Deoli taluka and they were individually interviewed based on predesigned ordered questionnaire. Data for this survey were collected by door-to-door visit and random sampling using a structured questionnaire through interviewing and observation during Community Health Care Program from Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College Hospital and Research Centre. The responses were collected and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Stage-wise variables, for example, gender, education, age, occupation, religion, and awareness on organ donation are shown in percentage. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics. Result: Out of 200 participants, 75% were aware and 25% were not aware about organ donation. Among these 150 participants, highest range of awareness was found in the age group of 40–60 years (81%) in which 68% were men and 32% were women. The majority of rural population believes that the reason of organ donation is to save life. Most of the respondents (50%) were ready to donate their organs immediately after death. In our study, 57% were men, whereas 43% were women. Among the respondents who denied donating organs, unawareness and fear were the common reasons. Friends and relatives are the most common sources of knowledge for awareness. Conclusion: This study shows that there is a peaky attentiveness about organ donation among young adults and a good number of the respondents are agreed to make a contribution in donating organs.

Keywords: Attitude, awareness, knowledge, organ donation


How to cite this article:
Lambat A, Chaple JN. Knowledge, awareness, and attitudes about organ donation among adults in Deoli taluka of Wardha district. J Indian Sys Medicine 2019;7:217-23

How to cite this URL:
Lambat A, Chaple JN. Knowledge, awareness, and attitudes about organ donation among adults in Deoli taluka of Wardha district. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Aug 13];7:217-23. Available from: http://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2019/7/4/217/280354


  Introduction Top


Organ donation (OD) is the gift of life. It is the procedure when a person permits to donate their own organ to be removed and transplanted to another person, legally, when the donor is alive or dead with the assent of the next of kin.

Donation may be for research or, more commonly, healthy transplantable organs and tissues may be donated to be transplanted into another person.

Most common transplantations include kidneys, heart, liver, pancreas, intestine, lungs, bones, bone marrow, skin, and corneas. Organs and tissues can be donated when donor is alive, such as a kidney or a part of liver, part of pancreas, part of lungs or intestines, but most donations occur after the donor’s death.[1]

There is need to do provide effective measures for the regulation of removal, storage, and transplantation of human organs for therapeutic purposes, which prevents the commercial dealings in human organs and for no matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.[2]

Lack of sensitization and awareness, refusal by family members, and fear of body abhorrent after death are few responsible factors for less number of organ donors. Unwieldy official paper works or inadequate information about the procedure might be some of the other relevant factors.

About half of the respondents that lack awareness among common people is the factor answerable for such a pitiable state of OD in India. So there is a need to generate awareness in public to encourage OD. Sensitization of common people and association of different agencies and media are must to do for a healthier outcome.[3]

However, the primary limitation to the organ transplantation program worldwide is the storage of donor organs. There is an increasing inconsistency among the number of patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation and available number of decreased donor organs.

Patients with heart, lung, and liver problems cannot be maintained for prolonged time on mechanical devices. Therefore, there is a great need for increasing OD and binding of donor organs.[4]

OD is removing an organ or tissue from one person and inserting it into another person by surgical process.

Transplantation is necessary because the receiver’s organ has miscarried or has been damaged by injury.

Organ transplantation is the most favored treatment for many of the end-stage organ disease. The necessity for the organ transplantation is greater than availability. For the transplantation program to be effective, awareness regarding OD is required and people must have a progressive attitude toward OD.[5]

The greatest complication to OD is the denial of family consent. OD rates may perhaps be improved by enhancing the quality of hospital concern and certifying that the request for donation is griped in a way that meets the families’ informational and emotional needs.

Lack of awareness along with mythologies and misunderstanding adds to the little gain of OD. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors are essential features in promoting an environment that encourages the percentage of OD.[6]

However, in India, there is a deficiency of information on awareness and attitudes of the individuals about solid donating organs, especially in the rural areas. The intention of this study was to calculate the attentiveness about OD among the rural inhabitants and to evaluate their attitudes toward OD.

So, anyone can be an organ donor regardless of their age, caste, religion, etc.


  Aim Top


The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, awareness, and attitudes regarding OD among adults in Deoli taluka, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.


  Objective Top


The objectives of this study were:

  • (1) to study the knowledge and awareness about OD among people of proper Deoli taluka, and


  • (2) to analyze the attitudes of people about OD.



  Materials and Methods Top


All the subjects were personally interviewed on the basis of questionnaire. Questionnaires, administered by an interviewer, are used to survey sociodemographic factors, knowledge, awareness, and attitudes regarding OD. We have conducted random sampling and door-to-door survey and also distributed pamphlet for awareness and knowledge about OD.

Study period was for 6 months and it was a prospective study.

Sample size taken was convenient and feasible, that is, 200 adults.

Inclusion criteria were persons older than 21 years and who are willing to give their consent, whereas exclusion criterion was persons younger than 21 years.

Statistical Analysis

Stage-wise variables, for example, gender, education, age, occupation, religion, and awareness on OD are shown in percentage. Data analysis was done by descriptive statistics.


  Observation Top


In [Table 1], age-wise percentage of respondents are shown of which highest percentage of respondents are from 40 to 60 age-group (46.5%).
Table 1: Percentage of people according to their age-groups

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In [Table 2], maximum are Hindus (98.5%), whereas Muslims and scheduled castes are very few, that is, 0.5%–1%.
Table 2: Percentage of people according to their religion

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In [Table 3], percentage of male respondents are more than female respondents; that is, 57% of men and 43% of women are there in study.
Table 3: Percentage of male and female among 200 peoples

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In [Figure 1], according to occupation, 13% are farmers, 18.5% are teachers, 14.5% do various business, 31% are housewives, 6.5% do job, 6% are retired from their service, and 10.5% comes under others.
Figure 1: Percentage of respondents according to their occupation

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As [Figure 2] represents, the highest level of education is graduate (36.5%), higher secondary certificate deserves 18%, secondary school certificate has 12.5%, and others are minimum.
Figure 2: Literacy among respondents

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In [Table 4], participants who heard about OD are very high, 96.5%, whereas 3.5%, had not heard about OD.
Table 4: Percentage of respondents heard about organ donation

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75% of respondents, were aware of OD and 25%, were not aware about OD [Figure 3].
Figure 3: Awareness among the respondents

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In 97.5% of subjects religion played no role, whereas 1% of them were doubtful and 1.5% agreed that religion played significant role in OD [Table 5].
Table 5: Percentage according to role of religion in organ donation

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Source of knowledge was highest from friends and relatives, that is, 45%, whereas through newspaper 15.5%, through TV 18%, and through family only 4%. Through internet, health provider, and no response are 5.5%, 3.5%, and 8.5%, [Figure 4].
Figure 4: Knowledge source of respondents

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[Figure 5] shows that 90% of subjects are aware of eye donation and 64% are aware of kidney donation, which are highest among all, whereas heart has 20.5%, liver has 10.5%, lungs has 8.5%, and the rest all are in very minute in count.
Figure 5: Percentage according to respondents

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94% subjects did not hear anything about OD card, whereas 6% have heard [Table 6].
Table 6: No. of people heard about organ donation card

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38.5% are ready to donate their organs, whereas 61.5% are not willing to donate their organs [Figure 6].
Figure 6: Percentage of respondents agreed to donate organ

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  Discussion Top


The aim was to assess the attitude and awareness about OD in a chosen grown-up populace in Deoli taluka. The analysis of collected data squeezed exciting conclusion. Greater part of the respondents has heard about OD. Friends and relatives were the main resource of knowledge about OD. The fact that organs have to be getting immediately after death is known to most of the people in our area. This will prevent them from wasting time to get organ in case of death of donor.

38.5% of the participants were agreeable to donate their organs and were geared up to sign the donor card. Among the 150/200 participants, highest range of awareness was found in the age-group of 40–60 years (81%). Agreeableness to donate eyes and kidney was much higher than other solid organs. The information in the study was obtained through face-to-face interview using a questionnaire. This has assessed the awareness and attitudes regarding OD among young adults of Deoli taluka.

The medical students in Bangalore city[7] and the office goers in urban New Delhi[8] have responded that religious view was the least common reason for refusal to OD. Our study too represents that religious beliefs of the populace did not restrict their judgment to donate organs. On the contrary, the opposition by family unit was the most common reason that put off them commencing to contribute organ. This shows the importance of involving family members in decision-making regarding OD.

A study conducted by Ramadurg and Gupta[9] upon 70 medical students found that only 27% of the study inhabitants knew of the organs that can be donated, whereas in the present study it was found that 96.5% of respondents knew about the OD.

A study carried out by Edwin and Raja states awareness on the subject of eye donation was 88%, kidney was 33%, and liver was 27% among the study population.[10] This examination was similar to that reported by Annadurai et al.[11] who studied the knowledge of nonmedical college students on the topic of the organs that can be donated and found that above 80% were aware of eye and kidney donations and below 15% had knowledge regarding other OD. Thus, there was far above the ground level of awareness about donation of eye, kidney, heart, and liver, and there was considerably low knowledge regarding the donation of other organs. In the present study it was found that 90.5% were ready to donate eyes, 64.5% for kidney, 10.5% for liver, and 20.5% for heart.

Strengths and Limitation

Study question[

1],[

10]


Self-prepared questionnaire is given in Appendix.

Study design

This was a community-based study carried out in Deoli taluka. Data collection was conducted in the given time period. Study included persons older than 21 years. Arranged questionnaire was used to collect the comeback. The questionnaire was translated into local language to make the questions friendly and free, and easy to understand.

Data collection

Information was self-collected with the help of structured questionnaire (primary investigator). Knowledge, awareness, and attitudes of the individuals were assessed through face-to-face interviews.

Analysis

The sample size taken was convenient and feasible. Stage-wise variables, for example gender, education, age, occupation, religion, and awareness on OD, are shown in percentage. The data were fed into Microsoft Excel 2007 and evaluated.

  • (a) Controversies raised by this study: Some people strongly refused to even interview or to ask questions to them. They yelled for even giving introduction about OD to them.


  • (b) Future research directions: As OD is wonder of modern medicine must be affordable. Funding of clinical and basic science research that will allow the development of new therapies. Individuals would be stand to benefit that must be affordable.


The study brings out the need of a proper message, which includes knowledge and positive thoughts to bring about the necessary changes in the perceptions and intentions of the respondents regarding OD.


  Conclusion Top


In this study population, there is towering awareness about eye and kidney donation, but the awareness about other OD is pitiable. The awareness about eligible donors and the timing of OD is also quite picky. Many of the respondents were willing for eye donation, whereas two-thirds were disinclined to donate solid organs due to perceived risks, fear, or family pressure. These factors request to concentrate on awareness campaigns in the community and also to popularize OD during people’s contact with the health care system.

A well-organized approach is essential to create awareness among the young adults about various phase of OD, which is necessary to eradicate the setbacks that affect the rate of accessibility of donating organs. Motivational communication and facts are some of the means of interference to bring changes about attentiveness and purpose about OD among the young adults. Other educational tools such as advertisements, exhibitions, and lectures can improve the awareness and attitude about OD among the young adults. As media have a major role in communication these days, they should take up the initiative of broadcasting the legislative laws that are involved in the process of OD.

Financial Support and Sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of Interest

There are no conflicts of interest.


  Appendix Top




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  References Top

1.
Schauenburg H1, Hildebrandt A. Public knowledge and attitudes on organ donation do not differ in Germany and Spain. Transplant Proc 2006;38:1218-20.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Shroff S. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation. Indian J Urol 2009;25:348-55.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.
Shroff S1. Working towards ethical organ transplants. Indian J Med Ethics 2007;4: 68-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Gortmaker SL, Beasley CL, Sheehy E, Lucas BA, Brigham LE, Grenvik A, et al. Improving the request process to increase family consent for organ donation. J Transpl Coord 1998;8: 210-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Nagral S, Amalorpavanathan J. Deceased organ donation in India: Where do we go from here? Indian J Med Ethics 2014;11: 162-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Suresh AG, Mariappan M. Factors that determine deceased organ transplantation in India. Indian J Transplant 2017;11: 26-30.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Bapat U, Kedlaya PG, Gokulnath. Organ donation, awareness, attitudes and beliefs among post graduate medical students. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2010;21:174-80.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
8.
Wig N, Aggarwal P, Kailash S, Handa R, Wali JP. Awareness of brain death and organ transplantation among office-goers in New Delhi. Natl Med J India 1997;10:303-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Ramadurg UY1, Gupta A2. Impact of an educational intervention on increasing the knowledge and changing the attitude and beliefs towards organ donation among medical students. J Clin Diagn Res 2014;8:JC05-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Edwin AR, Raja D. Attitude of health care professionals towards organ donation. Indian J Urol 2020;16:98-105.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Annadurai K, Mani K, Ramasamy J. A study on knowledge, attitude and practices about organ donation among college students in Chennai, Tamil Nadu-2012. Prog Health Sci 2013;3: 59-65.  Back to cited text no. 11
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
Aim
Objective
Materials and Me...
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