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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2020
Volume 8 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 69-154

Online since Monday, September 7, 2020

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EDITORIAL  

Need to initiate “Research orientation program” for Ayurveda undergraduates Highly accessed article p. 69
Vaishali Vasantrao Kuchewar
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_66_20  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Prophylaxis and treatment aspect of COVID-19 with the use of Indian traditional plant-based medicine: A hypothetical review p. 71
Rakeshkumar P Prajapati, Manisha V Kalariya, Naishadh Solanki, Ghanshyam Sanghani, Vineet Jain
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_49_20  
HCoV (human coronavirus) is a retrovirus containing an enveloped virus belongs to Coronaviridae family. Coronavirus (CoV) family is composed of numerous viral strains and responsible for the cause of common cold, breathing problem, and fever. The chronic CoV infection may cause pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in human beings. The known strains of HCoV are HCoV-OC-43, -229E, and -HKU1. The more extensively known strain is SARS-CoV which caused a worldwide threat with the sky-scraping number of deaths with high mortality rate in 2003. In the year of 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) nominated a sixth type of HCoV infection recognized as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) which affected Middle East region of the world and showed a high fatality rate. In a similar way, currently coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been pandemic and fatal worldwide, which has been originated at China during December 2019. At present, there is no vaccine or treatment to cure COVID-19 infection. In such a time, the pharmaceuticals should promote and encourage natural product drug discovery programs. They should inspire the academic organizations to perform committed research activities to develop natural and alternative therapeutics. Till the date numbers of Indian traditional plants have been reported showing their antiviral potential, immunemodulating potential, and respiroprotective effects. In this review, such kinds of potent antiviral traditional plants are listed and described in very detailed manner along with their active phytoconstituents as well as mechanism of actions. In the current pandemic situation of COVID-19, these traditional plants can be a rich source to develop and design novel natural medicines, therapies, or vaccines against HCoV-2.
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Epidemic containment measures in Unani medicine and their contemporary relevance Highly accessed article p. 84
Malik Itrat, Tariq Nadeem Khan, Zarnigar Riaz, Mohd Zulkifle
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_53_20  
Background and Objective: Nonavailability of clinically proven prophylaxis and specific drug against the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) turned the world’s attention toward finding ways to strengthen the host defense. Unani scholars fully understand and consider the host as a key determinant in disease dynamics and laid emphasis on host defense strengthening as an important disease prevention strategy. Hence, this article aimed to provide an overview of the epidemic containment measures described in Unani classical texts and their relevance in the current outbreak. Materials and Methods: A manual literature survey of classical Unani texts was conducted to collect the information on the measures suggested for epidemic containment. In addition, electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct were searched to identify researches conducted on Unani drugs listed in the article as well as to obtain recent information about COVID-19 outbreak. The keywords used were “Unani Medicine,” “Epidemic,” “Immunomodulator,” “Antiviral,” “Antimicrobial,” “Prevention,” and “COVID-19.”Results: The literature review shows that Unani scholars have given an elaborate description of the epidemic including its definition, etiological factors, susceptible host, clinical presentation of infected individuals, and the containment measures. Described measures can be broadly classified into cause-centric and host-centric depending on their application-at environment and individual level, respectively. Cause-centric measures are aimed to eliminate the causative agent present in the environment and host-centric measures are aimed to strengthen the host defense. Conclusion: Epidemic containment measures described in classical Unani treatises seem to be of much relevance in today’s context. These measures have been considered useful in reducing the risk of contracting the infection during epidemics. Hence, in our opinion, it is worth assessing them in the current outbreak.
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Ayurveda interpretation, diagnostic, and probable management of COVID-19 pandemic p. 91
Sanjay Kumar
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_54_20  
Viral infections play a significant role in human illnesses. In late December 2019, a previously unidentified coronavirus, named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 by ICTV on February 11, 2020), also named as 2019 novel coronavirus, originated from Wuhan, China, and caused outbreak in many countries. Presently, despite the advancement made in immunization and drug development, this virus lacks preventive vaccines and effective antiviral remedies. Thus, identification of specific antiviral medicine is of critical importance. However, classical Ayurveda preparations may play an excellent role in the management of this outbreak. Ayurveda has a unique method of approaching the newly detected disease. Rather than focusing on the microbial etiology, Ayurveda embraces a holistic technique for elaborating the details of the disease at hand. In this paper, we summarize the interpretation, diagnosis, treatment principles, and medicines described in different texts of Ayurveda to treat viral infections.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Wound-healing potential of Nimbadi Kalka in diabetic foot ulcer: a clinical study p. 102
Rabinarayan Tripathy, Saranya V Nair, Vivek Lakshman, Shaithya Raj, Susmita Priyadarshinee Otta
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_59_20  
Background: One of the most dangerous complications of diabetes mellitus is the loss of lower limb by amputation as a consequence to diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). The estimated global prevalence of DFU is around 6.3%. The DFU is a type of nonhealing ulcer. Ayurveda explains it as Dusta Vrana (chronic nonhealing ulcer). Depending on its etiological factor, it can also be termed as Pramehajanya Dusta Vrana (nonhealing ulcer due to diabetes). The general line of management of Pramehajanya Vrana (diabetic wound/ulcer) mentioned by Acharya Sushuta says that one should adopt the principle and protocol of Dusta Vrana management. While describing the Sasti Upakrama (60 modalities of ulcer management), Nimbadi Kalka (a paste where neem leaves are the main ingredient) is mentioned, having both Vrana Sodhana (cleansing) and Vrana Ropana (healing) properties and beneficial for nonhealing ulcer. Keeping in view the above factor, 15 patients of DFUs were taken with a baseline HbA1c (6–7). Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the wound-healing property of Nimbadi Kalka in DFU. Settings and Design: The study was an open-label single-arm prospective design to find the pre- and post-effect of Nimbadi Kalka application on DFU. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 15 patients of DFU excluding dropouts. Nimbadi Kalka was applied on daily basis over the wound site for 45 days. Assessment was done on parameters such as wound surface area, granulation tissue, and exudates. Results and Conclusion: Nimbadi Kalka shows a marked reduction in wound size and exudates. In the case of granulation tissue, on the 15th day of treatment there was a peak increase indicating the formation of granulation tissue. Hence, Nimbadi Kalka promotes wound healing by reducing the size of ulcer in DFU.
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Comparative study of efficacy of Khanduchakka (Ehretia laevis) Ghrit and cow ghee in the management of Parikartika (fissure in ano) p. 109
Suraj V Tichkule, Kiran Khandare, Pooja Shrivastav
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_31_20  
Background: Fissure in ano a very common anorectal disorder can be compared with Parikartika as per Ayurveda. Khanduchakka (Ehertia laevis) has Vraņashodhana and Ropaņa (wound-healing) properties that can help to heal the Vraņa (ulcer) rapidly. Its base is ghee, which itself has Samskaranuvarti (i.e., enhancing the properties of a drug) and healing properties. Khanduchakka Ghrita is beneficial by virtue of easily available ingredients and a time-tested classical formulation. Hence, it was compared with cow ghee in this study. Aim: Evaluation of the efficacy of Khanduchakka Ghrita, compared with cow ghee, in the management of Parikartika.Materials and Methods: Diagnosed cases of fissure in ano as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected and divided into two groups. For patients in group A, Khanduchakka Ghrita was applied; and in group B, cow ghee was applied. Assessment of each patient was carried out on 0, 15th, and 30th day and a follow-up on 45th day. Data were collected and a statistical analysis was done using appropriate tests. Results: The present study found that pain, itching, bleeding, and tenderness were significantly reduced and healing was significantly faster in group A (n = 15) compared to group B (n = 15). Conclusions: Based upon the results it can be concluded that Khanduchakka Ghrita is more significant than cow ghee in managing Parikartika.
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Study of Panchashirishadi Agad on the basis of physicochemical and phytochemical analysis p. 114
Shanti SK Manyala, Sonali P Chalakh
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_10_20  
Background: Many antidotes are mentioned in the classical text for the management of animal poisoning. Panchashirishadi Agad is one of the formulations indicated for Kita Visha (insect bite). Aim: To assess the physicochemical and phytochemical properties of Panchashirishadi Agad.Setting and Design: This was an original analytical study. Materials and Methods: Five parts of Shirish (Albizia lebbeck) were collected from local area of Wardha (Sewagram) and Panchashirishadi Agad was formulated as per the reference of classical text. Result: After the analytical study, the physicochemical properties that include loss on drying at 105°C, total ash value, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble extractive, alcohol-soluble extractive, pH, and particle size were analyzed and the obtained values were 12.0%, 10.0%, 1.0%, 11.0%, 13.0%, 5.45%, and 100 mesh, respectively. In the similar way, the herbal formulation is devoid of microbial contamination. Phytochemical analysis includes the presence of 48% polyphenols. Conclusion: As the formulation contains more percentage of polyphenols, it can be anticipated that it can act as antiallergic agent.
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Pharmacognostic study of Hydrocotyl verticillata Thunb p. 122
Prashant Rameshrao Umate, Meena S Deogade
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_23_20  
Introduction: Hydrocotyl verticillata Thunb. is a shady creeping medicinal herb with therapeutic properties and is commonly used for fevers, wounds, boils, abscesses, colds, coughs, hepatitis, influenza, purities, sore throat, headaches, and urinary tract problems. However, it is not standardized to date. So, the study aims to standardize H. verticillate as it is used as a primary medicine for human ailments . Materials and Methods: The plant was collected from Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College Hospital and Research Centre, herbal garden and authenticated by the pharmacognosy department of IPGT&RA, Jamnagar, Gujarat. A pharmacognostic study with microscopic and preliminary phytochemical analysis was carried out. Result: Microscopy study showed some characteristics of stomata, palisade, and surface, which is useful for the identification and standardization of H. verticillata.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Management of chronic case of Buerger’s disease through Ayurveda: A case report p. 130
Santosh K Bhatted, Ram Lakhan Meena
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_29_20  
Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger’s disease) is a non-atherosclerotic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology characterized by thrombosis and recanalization of the affected vessels, which has a strong association with tobacco. It usually affects small and medium-sized arteries and veins in distal upper and lower extremities. The onset of disease occurs between 40 and 45 years of age, and men are most commonly affected. The prevalence of the disease among all the patients with peripheral arterial disease varies from as low as 0.5%-5.6% in Western Europe to as high as 45%-63% in India. The present case study was on a patient who approached the OPD of All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi, with chief complaints of pain and swelling in digits of the left foot for 1 year along with associated complaints of decreased sensation over left toe with bluish and blackish skin discoloration. The essential investigation such as ultrasound Doppler was done and diagnosed as a case of peripheral vascular disease (Buergers disease). Based on clinical presentation, sign, and symptoms, it was diagnosed as a case of Vatarakta (~occlusive peripheral vascular disease) according to Ayurveda. The treatment principle of Vatarakta mainly includes Virechana (~therapeutic purgation), Basti (~therapeutic enema), and Raktamokshana (~bloodletting by mean of leech application along with oral medications were advised. Patient showed significant improvement in the pain according to visual analog scale, skin discoloration, and other associated symptoms along with the positive changes in color Doppler of lower limbs. It shows that the therapeutic purgation with bloodletting therapy is an effective method for the management of thromboangiitis obliterans disease.
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Clinical efficacy of Raktamokshana by cupping method in the management of chronic cervical spondylosis: A case study p. 137
Ekta D Patel, Dudhamal S Tukaram
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_57_20  
Cervical spondylosis is a common condition affecting the neck. In Ayurveda, several methods such as Snehana (massage), Nasya (nasal insufflation), and Raktamokshana (therapeutic bloodletting) are indicated in the management of Sandhigatvata. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy Raktamokshana in the management of chronic cervical spondylosis. A 47-year-old male patient visited outpatient department (OPD) with the complaint of cervical pain radiating to hand, stiffness, and difficulty in neck movement since 4 years. On Examination, Spurling’s test and Lhermitte’s sign were positive. Along with the support of X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging investigations, the patient was diagnosed with degenerative cervical spondylosis due to cervical stenosis. Considering the cervical spondylosis as Sandhigatvata, the patient was treated with Raktamokshana in two sittings at 15-day interval. Before treatment, the pain score (visual analog scale) and Neck Disability Index percentage were 7% and 67.5%, respectively, and that was reduced to 2% and 12.5% within 1 month after intervention. Hence it concludes that, Raktamokshana plays a major role in the management of pain due to muscular spasm.
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Role of Putikadi Lepa in the management of Dadru Kushtha (Tinea corporis): A case study p. 141
Minakshi Avinash Urkude, Sonali P Chalakh, Shanti S Manyala
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_45_20  
Background: Developing and tropical countries such as India occurrence of skin diseases are more prominent in recent era. Dadru Kushtha (Tinea corporis) is one of Mahakushtha or Kshudra Kushtha explained by Acharya under the heading of skin diseases. In the present case study, Putikadi Lepa has been used to treat the patient having the symptoms of Tinea corporis which is mentioned in Sushruta Samhita. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Putikadi Lepa in the management of Dadru Kushtha (Tinea corporis). Setting and Design: This was an original case study. Materials and Methods: Putikadi Lepa includes leaves of Pongamia pinnata Pierre, Calotropis gigantean Linn, Cassia fistula Linn, Euphorbia neriifolia Linn, and Jasminum grandiflorum Linn pasted with cow urine. Putikadi Lepa is given to the patient having the symptoms of Tinea corporis for external application on affected area up to 21 days. Results: Clinical study shows the significant result of Putikadi Lepa to pacify the symptoms like itching, erythema, eruption, size of lesion, and number of lesion of Tinea corporis. Conclusion: Due to their antifungal and antibacterial properties of all the ingredients of Putikadi Lepa, it shows good results on patient. Putikadi Lepa is an herbal preparation and drugs are easily available. So it is very convenient treatment for Tinea corporis.
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Role of Shaman and Nitya Virechan in the management of Vicharchika (eczema): a case study p. 147
Ashish Umeshrao Nimbhorkar, Sadhana Misar (Wajpeyi)
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_38_20  
Background: Kushtha is the broad term used for all skin conditions in Ayurveda. Vicharchika is a subtype of Kshudrakushtha. It is Rakta Pradoshaj Vyadhi involving all three Doshas in its Samprapti. It can be correlated with atopic dermatitis (eczema) due to similarity in clinical features, such as Kandu (pruritus), Pidika (papules, vesicles, and pustules), Shyavata (erythema with discoloration), Srava (copious discharge), Raji (thickening, lichenification of skin), Ruja (pain), and Rukshata (dry lesion). In Ayurveda, Shodhana and Shamana chikitsa are mentioned for Kushthavyadhi. Case Report: A 63-year-old male reported having blackish thick patches on back side of both knee joints with severe itching, burning sensation, and watery discharge for the last 3 months. The case was treated with Nitya Virechan with Aragvadha Kadha and Avipattikar Churna for 7 days followed by Shaman Aushadhi (Arogyavardhini Vati, Khadirarishtha, Panchtiktaghrit guggul, and Karanja tail) for 15 days. Result and Discussion: The assessment of subjective parameters like Kandu (pruritus), Srava (discharge), Daha (burning sensation), Shyavata (discoloration), and Rookshata (dry skin) was done on days 0, 7, and 14 as well as photographs of the affected areas compared before and after treatment. Patient showed remarkable relief from all symptoms after treatment. Conclusion: Nitya Virechan followed by Shamana Aushadhi is very effective in the management of Vicharchika (eczema).
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WORKSHOP REPORT Top

BNCRP Part 1- Basic Newborn Care and Resuscitation Program, “The First Golden Minute”- Conduction Summary Report p. 151
Renu B Rathi
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_41_20  
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PROCEEDING REPORT Top

Proceeding report of a web summit on “Polycystic Ovary Syndrome” p. 153
Bhagyashri Vijay Chaudhari
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_63_20  
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