|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 193-199
Pharmaceutico analytical profile of Kushmanda Avaleha and its modified dosage form as Kushmanda granules
Neha S Chavhan1, Bharat J Rathi1, Dhananjay D Deshmukh2
1 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurveda College, Hospital and Research Centre (MGACH & RC), Wardha, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Shalya Tantra, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurveda College, Hospital and Research Centre (MGACH & RC), Wardha, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Submission||29-Jul-2020|
|Date of Decision||04-Oct-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||08-Oct-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||11-Nov-2020|
Dr. Neha S Chavhan
Deparment of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurveda College Hospital and Research Centre, Wardha 442001, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Kushmanda Avaleha (KA, confection) has been described in Sharangdhar Samhita as a drug of choice in Raktapitta Chikitsa (hemorrhage). Ayurveda mentioned Five Basic Kalpanas, which are called Panchvidha Kashya Kalpana. Panchvidha Kashya Kalpana has several drawbacks, such as less palatability, shorter shelf life, etc. Hence, to overcome these drawbacks, secondary formulations were developed. Avaleha Kalpana was a secondary formulation developed by using primary formulations, such as Swaras (juice), Kwatha (decoctions), etc. Avaleha formulation was prepared by using herbal medicinal drugs and food articles such as sugar, ghee (clarified butter), honey etc. Administering proper dose of Avaleha is difficult in new era than Avaleha convert into granules form because, considering the changing scenario of the society, converting traditional dosage forms into more palatable, easily absorbable forms without changing desired therapeutic effects becomes need of the hour. In the current study, an attempt has been made to convert KA into granules form, which is the first step toward research on the formulation; hence, the current work was planned. Aim: Analytical study of KA and its modified dosage form as Kushmanda granules (KG)Materials and Methods: Three batches of KA were prepared as per the reference of Sharangdhar Samhita (8/22–28), and the same is converted into granules by adopting standard operative procedures. Result and Conclusion: Loss on drying at 105°C, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, alcohol-soluble extractives, water-soluble extractives, pH, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing sugar, and total fat and moisture content in the range of Avaleha is 2.3%, 0.7%, 0.103%, 71.22%, 77.12%, 4.2%, 78.15%, 68.21%, 5.6%, and 2.92%. The range of granules is 3.1%, 1.2%, 0.36%, 38.09%, 41.2%, 3.53, 80.17, 78.12, 4.5, 0.92, and 3.12, respectively.
Keywords: Kushmanda Avaleha (confection), Kushmanda granules, physicochemical analysis
|How to cite this article:|
Chavhan NS, Rathi BJ, Deshmukh DD. Pharmaceutico analytical profile of Kushmanda Avaleha and its modified dosage form as Kushmanda granules. J Indian Sys Medicine 2020;8:193-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Chavhan NS, Rathi BJ, Deshmukh DD. Pharmaceutico analytical profile of Kushmanda Avaleha and its modified dosage form as Kushmanda granules. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 26];8:193-9. Available from: https://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2020/8/3/193/300489
| Introduction|| |
Ayurveda described five basic pharmaceutical preparations that are commonly known as Panchvidha Kashya Kalpana. It has several drawbacks, such as less palatability, shorter shelf life etc. Hence, to overcome these drawbacks, secondary formulations were developed to compete with the need of all-time availability, easy dispensing, and efficacy. The secondary formulations include powders, tablets, suppositories, granules, and so on that are prepared with the same herbal ingredients but differ in the quantity of ingredients, efficiency, dose, and adjuvant.Avaleha Kalpana is one such secondary formulation developed by using primary formulations such as Swaras (juice), Kwatha (decoction), etc.Avaleha formulation is prepared by using herbal medicinal drugs and food articles such as sugar, ghee (clarified butter), and honey.
KA is a polyhedral Ayurveda formulation in semisolid state. Kushmanda is a rich source of carbohydrate. It is a nourishing medicine used in Rakktapitta (hemorrhage) condition to improve immunity and strength. The main ingredient of KA is Kushmanda, which is also known as ash gourd, white pumpkin etc. The conversion of formulations into various dosage forms to achieve additional benefits has gained great importance in the market to meet the trends of the changing era. In addition, the concept of standardization and the quality control of the final product are the major issues. The granule form of the medicament is convenient in handling, dispensing, and storage. Considering this, the current study has been aimed at converting KA into granules form and at comparing the analytical values with KG.
| Materials and Methods|| |
All the raw drugs [Table 1] required for the preparation of KA and KG were collected from a trusted herbal raw drug provider. Kushmanda fruits were collected from a local vegetable market. The raw drugs were identified and authenticated by the taxonomist in Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College Hospital and Research Centre Institute. Organoleptic characters, physicochemical analysis, and microbial contamination were studied in the analytical lab as per API standards.
|Table 1: Ingredients of KA and KG (for each batch, totally three batches)|
Click here to view
The current formulation of KA is taken from Sharangdhar Samhita and it contains a total of 12 ingredients [Table 1]. The general process of preparation of Avaleha was followed for KA. The preparation of KA was divided into five steps as follows: preparation of powder (Prakshepa Dravya), preparation of Kushmanda pulp [Table 2], Paka preparation, preparation of KA, and preparation of KG.
Preparation of Churna (powder)
All the herbal drugs except Kushmanda were dried, powdered individually in a mixer, and sieved through mesh no-80 to obtain a fine powder.
Preparation of Kushmanda pulp
The collected fresh Kushmanda fruits [Figure 1] were washed with water to remove the physical impurities present. They were cut into small pieces [Figure 2]; the outer hard layer and the seeds of Kushmanda pieces were removed with the help of a knife, placed in a cooker containing double the quantity of water [Figure 3], and steamed for 30min. When it became cool, the contents were filtered and the softened pieces of Kushmanda were put in a stainless steel vessel. The pulp obtained was mashed into a soft mass and squeezed through a clean cloth to remove the water. The reaming part of water was put in separately [Figure 4] for paka preparation and dried pieces [Figure 5]. Then, the pulp was fried in Go-ghrita (cow’s ghee) [Figure 6] on moderate fire till it turned to a brownish color and the ghee was separated [Figure 7].
Preparation of KA
Sugarcandy in an equal quantity to that of paste was added to the squeezed water and heated on moderate fire, maintaining the temperature in the range of 85oC–95oC till one thread consistency of sugar candy syrup was formed. Fried paste and then Prakshepa Dravya were added to it, mixed vigorously, and stirred continuously till the confirmatory tests [Figure 8] of Avaleha were achieved. When the temperature of the contents reached room temperature, the prescribed quantity of honey was added and the mixture was again stirred thoroughly. The formed semisolid dosage form is KA [Figure 9] and [Table 3].
Preparation of KG
All the three mentioned steps are the same till Avaleha preparation but in granule preparation they are further heated on moderate fire, maintaining the temperature in the range of 95oC–100oC till two to three thread consistencies are formed [Figure 10]. When the temperature of the contents reached room temperature (35oC), a prescribed quantity of honey was added and the mixture was again stirred thoroughly to prepare a uniform mass. This mass was passed through mesh no-48 to obtain KG [Table 3] and [Table 4].
| Observation and Result|| |
Observed organoleptic and physiochemical analytical parameters of three samples were nearly the same, and no considerable difference was observed in the studied parameters [Table 5],[Table 6],[Table 7],[Table 8],[Table 9],[Table 10].
| Discussion|| |
Avaleha contains an aqueous medium (decoction or juice), substrate (sugar, sugar candy, jaggery), Prakshep Dravya (powdered drugs), lipid medium (Ghrita, Tila Taila etc), and additives such as honey. The confirmatory tests for Avaleha preparation are based on Asannapaka Lakshan (test before attaining Paka) and Siddha Lakshana (tests after the preparation), which are mainly used to identify the Paka of Avaleha and this depends on sweetening agent and water ratio. By analyzing various Avaleha preparations, it was observed that the consistency varies from a freely flowing, paste-like, semisolid, and granular form, which depends on the substrate and Prakshep Churna ratio. For the Avaleha preparation, one thread consistency and for granules more than two thread consistencies of sugar candy syrup were achieved as confirmatory tests, respectively.
An average of 7.83% KA and 7.89% KG can be prepared from 15kg of Kushmanda fruits, which represent that the preparation of both formulations results in a nearly 92% loss. Thus, the average total yield of KA and KG was almost equal. KG registered more time for preparation as compared with KA, as the latter required two thread consistencies of sugar candy syrup, which took more time as compared with KA [Tables 4] and . The prepared three batches of KA and KG were analyzed to establish standard parameters. All three batches have brown color and a sweet taste.
The color and odor of the three batches of KA and KG were almost similar [Table 8]. There was no significant difference between the organoleptic characters of KA and KG, suggestive of the methods of preparation. KA and KG do not cause much difference in final products. The average values of physiochemical parameters of KA and KG of all the three batches were almost similar [Tables 9] and . There was a considerable difference in the loss on drying in KA-2.3 w/w and KG-3.1% w/w. As the sugar content is more, the loss on drying of granules at 1050C is more than with KA, which indicates that moisture content was more in KA than KG. This may be due to the longer duration of heating required in traditional methods as compared with KG. The total ash in KA was found to be 0.7 and that in KG was 1.2% w/w, which may be due to nonorganic components in the KG and also due to the difference in the phytoconstitutes of Kushmanda. The alcohol-soluble extractive in KA was 71.22%w/w and that in KG was 38.09%. This indicates that the soluble fat contents are more in KA as compared with KG. The water-soluble extractive of KA was 77.12%w/w and that of KG was 41.2%, which indicated more water-soluble contents in KG as compared with KA. This observation indicated that the frying method may have an impact on the hydrolysis of the compound present in Kushmanda pulp as well as showed the difference in the force of compound interactions in the presence of heat. Acid-insoluble ash in KA was found to be 0.1%w/w and that in KG was found to be 0.36%, which indicated that the proportion of acid-insoluble inorganic material in both samples was not much noticeable. The pH in KA was found to be 4.2%w/w and that in KG was found to be 3.53%, which was suggestive of the acidic nature of both the samples. The total sugar observed in KA was 78.15% and that in KG was 80.17%, indicating the presence of starch in KA and KG. The reduced sugar in KA was found to be 68.21w/w and that in KG was found to be 78.12 w/w, as in the case of granules no such standards are mentioned. Hence, the obtained values in the current study can be considered for future studies. This indicates the presence of starch in KA and KG. The nonreducing sugar in KA was found to be 5.6% and that in KG was found to be 4.5%, as in granules no such standards are found to be mentioned. Hence, the obtained values in the current study can be considered for future studies. This indicates the presence of KA and KG in starch. Values of pH, total sugar, and reducing and nonreducing sugar depends on the quality and quantity of the ingredients, which was the same; hence, these parameters showed similar values in KA and KG.
The microbial load in both samples was observed and no growth was found. Proper precautions were taken throughout the processes to avoid any microbial contamination. The results are as per pharmacopeia standards. However, based on the physicochemical analysis as well as factors such as duration of preparation, ease of administration, obtained quantity, and ease of preparation; it is seen that the KG is more convenient than KA.
| Conclusion|| |
An average of 7.83% KA and 7.89% KG can be prepared from 15kg of Kushmanda fruits, which indicates that the preparation of both formulations results in a nearly 92% loss due to hard pericarp, more seeds, and more water content present in Kushmanda fruit. Analytical findings of KA and KG have shown a negligible difference; hence, it is concluded that KA can be modified into granules form. The therapeutic action of modified KG needs to be analyzed by conducting animal as well as clinical trials.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
Figures of pharmaceutical preparation of KA and KG
| References|| |
Rathi B, Rathi R, Rajput DS Pharmaceutical standardization of Avalgujadilepguti. J Indian Syst Med 2016;4:72-6.
Chavhan NS, Rathi B Pharmaceutico-analytical study of Adraka Khanda. J Indian Sys Med 2019;7:112-8.
Reddy KR Aushadhi Kalpana Bhaishajya Kalpana Vijnanam. Varanasi, India: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhavana; 1998. p. 209.
Sharangdhar . Sharangdhar Samhita, Madhyam Khanda 8/1–3 commentary with Dipika and Gudharthadipika. 4th ed. Varanasi, India: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2000. p. 206.
Srivatsava S Sharangadhara Samhita, Madhyama Khanda. 1st ed. Varanasi, India: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2009. 8/1p. 208.
Rathi B, Wanjari A, Rajput D, Khan M, Rathi R Pharmaceutical standardization of Chyawanprash prepared by two different methods. J Indian Sys Med 2018;6:179.
Gokarna R, Rajput D, Wanjari A, Rathi B, Kharbe P Drug dose modification of Balchaturbhadra syrup, 2016. J Indian Sys Med 2016;4:15-9.
Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1st ed. Delhi, India: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt of India; 1999. Part I Vol I, Appendix-2(2.2.9). p. 143.
Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India1st ed. Delhi, India: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt of India; 1999. Part I Vol I, Appendix-2(2.2.3), p. 143.
Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1st ed. Delhi, India: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt of India; 1999, Part I Vol I, Appendix-2(2.2.4), p. 143.
Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1st ed. Delhi, India: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt of India; 1999, Part I Vol I, Appendix-3(3.3). p. 230.
Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1st ed. Delhi, India: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt of India; 1999. Part I Vol I, Appendix-5(126.96.36.199), p. 255.
Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1st ed. Delhi, India: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt of India; 1999, Part I Vol I, Appendix-5, p. 255.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10]