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Table of Contents
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 266-276

Kampillaka (Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg.), an overlooked plant of ayurveda pharmacopoeia: A review


Department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Submission21-Nov-2020
Date of Acceptance10-Dec-2020
Date of Web Publication11-Feb-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mital Mansukhbhai Buha
I.P.G.T. and R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar 361008, Gujarat.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JISM.JISM_107_20

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  Abstract 

Introduction: KampillakaMallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. of family Euphorbiaceae, is one of the best drugs of Ayurveda, known for its use in krimiroga (worms). Materials and Methods: This article delineates about the various aspects of Kampillaka, being collected from 20 Nighantu (lexicons), 18 Rasagrantha (compendia related to Rasashastra), 09 Chikitsa grantha (Compendia), and 08 Samhita (treaties). For its identification, about 46 Paryaya (synonyms) were attributed, highlighting its morphological characteristics and pharmacological properties and actions. Result and Discussion: Kampillaka possesses Katu Rasa, Laghu guna, Ushna Veerya, Katu vipaka, and kapha nashaka properties and Bhedi, Deepana, Grahi, and Rechi (Patra shaka) actions. It has been indicted in more than 22 disease conditions where maximum texts recommend it in Krimi Roga (Worm), Vrana (Wound), Gulma (Abdominal lump), Adhmana (Distention), Vibandha (Constipation), Jvara (Fever) etc. Kampillaka as an ingredient has been included in 128 formulations; as recorded in 35 classical texts of Ayurveda through 64 and 42 formulations in internal and external administration, respectively; in more than 14 dosages form where the maximum are in Churna (31), Taila (24), Ghrita (20), Gutika (10), Lepa (10) etc. Its incompatibility with buttermilk has been highlighted in Charka Samhita. Conclusion: The observation of the current review may be helpful, proving a base to find out therapeutic application of the Kampillaka for the management of certain disease conditions such as wounds, skin disease, worm infestation etc., which have been highlighted in classical texts.

Keywords: External, internal, Kampillaka, Mallotus philippensis, monkey tree


How to cite this article:
Buha MM, Acharya R. Kampillaka (Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg.), an overlooked plant of ayurveda pharmacopoeia: A review. J Indian Sys Medicine 2020;8:266-76

How to cite this URL:
Buha MM, Acharya R. Kampillaka (Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg.), an overlooked plant of ayurveda pharmacopoeia: A review. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Mar 4];8:266-76. Available from: https://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2020/8/4/266/309121




  Introduction Top


Kampillaka, botanically identified as Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. of family Euphorbiaceae, is one among the few drugs of Ayurveda, highlighted for its use in krimiroga (worms).[1] Traditional healers also use various parts of this plant for certain disease conditions, through both external and internal administration. It is a much branched, small tree up to 3–6 m tall. Leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate, 8–22 × 3–8cm, 3-nerved at base, glabrous above, pubescent, and with numerous red glands beneath; petiole bearing two small glands near the apex. Flowers small; males in erect terminal spikes forming elongated paniculate racemes; females solitary in short spikes, ovary covered with red glands. Fruits globose, 3-lobed, 8–10mm in diameter, covered with bright red powder. Seeds subglobose, black, 3–4mm across.[2],[3]

Though each Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia reports the clinical uses of Kampillka, comprehensive single-hand information of the drug kampillaka is still lacking. Hence, an attempt has been made for a meticulous review to create an exclusive database on the identification characteristics, properties, indications, and formulations of Kampillaka as described in the available Ayurvedic pharmacopoeias and compendias.


  Materials and Methods Top


Search criteria

Information regarding the drug Kampillakais was compiled from the printed form of Nighantu, Samhita, Chikitsagrantha, and Rasagrantha and the online source of e- Nighantu. Each of the texts has been scrutinized chapter by chapter, with search words Kampillaka, Kabila, Kampilla, and Kampilyaka. Information was extracted from a total of 20 Nighnatu [Table 1], 14 Rasagrantha [Table 2], 09 Chikitsagrantha [Table 3], and 08 Samhita [Table 4].
Table 1: List of referred 20 Nighantu where Kampillaka is described

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Table 2: List of referred 18 Rasagrantha where Kampillaka is described

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Table 3: List of referred 09 Chikitsa grantha where Kampillaka is described

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Table 4: List of referred 08 Samhita where Kampillaka is described

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Formulations containing Kampillaka or its parts, as an ingredient, were critically studied and recorded in a specially designed information sheet. With an aim to make the presentation short, various abbreviations were created for different dosage forms, such as Avleha (confection) (Al), Churna (powder) (Cr), Dhoopa (Fumigation) (Dp), Ghrita (medicated ghee) (Gr), Gutika (pills) (Gt), Kalka (paste) (Kl), Kwatha (decoction) (Kw), Lepa (Paste) (Lp), Malahara (ointment) (Ml), Modaka (bolus) (Mo), Paka (Jaggery preparation) (Pk), Sneha (oil preparation) (Sn), Taila (oil) (Tl), and Varti (Wick) (Vr).

NAMASTE PORTAL[4] was referred for the interpretation of classical Ayurvedic terminologies and their nearest English equivalents, and the terms that are not available there were referred from Standard dictionaries[5] and AFI.[6] Both internal and external administration was categorized according their srotasa of origin and was presented in a tabular form accordingly.[7]

Inclusion criteria

This review covers the available Ayurvedic texts in both printed and e-format. If not available in printed format, the “e” version was considered. The available data are presented in a precise tabular format in a systematic manner with regard to their synonyms, classification, properties, actions, and indications on various disease conditions.

Exclusion criteria

The current research study excluded Nighntus and Rasagranthas, which are available in manuscript form.

Data analysis

The repetition of a single formulation noted in more than one text was considered as one.


  Results and Discussion Top


Ayurvedic nomenclature through Paryaya (synonyms)

More than 46 Paryaya has been attributed to Kampillaka. When critically analyzed, Kampillaka is observed as an evergreen tree, found mostly on the bank of rivers (Nadivasa), a tree abundantly available at a place called Kampilya region (Kampilyaka, Kampilla, Kampillaka); bears many leaves (Bahupatra), rough (Karkashapatraka); bears many fruits (Bahuphala), rough due to the presence of the hairs (Karkasha, Karkashahvya), in the form of red-colored powder (Raktachurnaka, Raktanga, Raktaphala), just like the color of Manahashila (Manahashila); Kampillaka helps in alleviating a number of disorders and produces the feeling of well-being (Candra, Candrahvya, Candrasahvya); helps in alleviating Rakta vikara (Raktashamana, Raktashanti); is a purgative and expels worms (Rechaka, Rechana); improves taste by destroying worms, which may be the cause for anorexia (Rochana, Rochanika); and acts as a wound cleanser by killing worms (Vraṇashodhana). Kampillaka powder is used commonly for dyeing (Rajanika, Ranjaka, Ranjanaka, Ranjanika, Patodaka); the tree with above characters is known as Kampillka and it is botanically identified as M. Philippensis of the family Euphorbeace. The list of synonyms attributed to Kampillaka and their interpretations are enumerated in [Table 5].
Table 5: Nirukti (Etymology) of synonyms and their interpretation

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Vargikarana (classification)

Based on the first drug of the group, properties, habit, number, major use of the drug, and action of the drug, kampillaka has been classified under Nikumbhadi Varga, Shyamadi Gana, Haritakyadi Varga, Chandanadi Varga etc. Based on its properties, it is described in Tikta Skandha. Based on its habit, it is included in Vṛkshakanda; it is also described in Anekarthanama Varga; Dwinama Varga; Dwitiya Gaṇa, and Ashta varga based on number. Based on the major use of the drug, it is included in Aushadhi Varga and Paniyadi Varga. Based on the partial use of the drug, it is described in Phalini Dravya. The rest have mentioned it in Virechana Dravya, Virechana Gana, Virechana Varga, and Pakvashaya Shodhaka Basti Dravya. Out of 20 Nighnatus, 18 Rasagrantha, 09 Chikitsagrantha, and 08 Samhita, 12 Nighantu, 02 Rasagrantha, 02 Chikitsagrantha, and 02 Samhita had described kampillaka under a Varga. The details of classification of Kampillaka are presented in [Table 6].
Table 6: Classification of Kampillaka in various Samhita, Rasagrantha, Chikitsa Grantha, and Nighantu

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Rasadipanchaka (Ayurveda pharmacodynamics properties) band Doshaghnata

In relation to pharmacodynamics; the properties of drugs have been described in terms of Rasadipanchaka (Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, and Prabhava) in Ayurveda.[58] Most of Nighantus state that Kampillaka possesses Katu Rasa,[11],[12],[13],[14],[16],[22],[23],[24],[31],[46]Laghu Guna,[23],[24],[31]Ushna Veerya,[11],[12],[13],[14],[16],[17],[22],[23],[24],[31],[46]Katu Vipaka,[17] and Kapha Nashaka properties.[12],[17],[23],[24] However, some Nighantu mentioned Kampillaka as having Kaphapittanashaka,[11],[17]Kaphavata Nashaka,[16]Vatarakta Nashaka,[26],[27] and Kapha-Piita-Rakta Nashaka[13],[14] properties. The leaves are attributed with Tikta Rasa,[16]Sheeta Veerya[16] and Vatala[16] properties.

Shodhana (purification)

Shodhana of Kampillaka has been mentioned in different classical texts of Ayurveda. Kampillaka is subjected to Bhavana (trituration) with juices of Matulunga (Citrus Medica Linn) and Ardraka (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) for 3 times.[32],[63],[64]Kampillakaraja is subjected to sudation in the decoction of Haritaki (decoction of Terminalia ChebulaRetz.) by means of Dolayantra.[46]

Karma and Rogaghnta (Actions and therapeutic indications)

The factor (residing in the Dravya) that literally acts (on the Dosha/ Dhatu/Mala) is Karma; that which performs is Karma. The fruit is attributed with Rechi (Purgative)[11],[12],[13],[15],[16],[18],[22],[23],[24],[30],[34],[37],[41] and Bhedi (Purgative)[26],[27]Karma where as its leaves are attributed with Grahi[16] and Dipana (Appetizer)[16]Karma and indicated in 22 different disease conditions. Among them, the maximum indication in Krimi Roga [Worm][11],[12],[13],[14],[16],[17],[18],[22],[23],[24],[30],[31],[32],[34],[37],[41],[42],[46] followed by Vrana [Wound][11],[12],[13],[14],[16],[18],[22],[23],[24],[30],[31],[32],[34],[37],[41],[42]; Gulma (Abdominal Lump)[11],[12],[13],[14],[16],[18],[24],[26],[27],[30],[32],[34],[37],[41],[42]; Adhmana (Distention)[12],[30],[34],[37],[41],[42]; Vibandha (Constipation)[12],[30],[32],[34],[37],[41],[42]; Jvara (Fever)[30],[32],[34],[37],[41],[42]; Kaphodara (Ascites)[30],[32],[34],[37],[41],[42]; Pitta roga (Disoders due to pitta dosha)[30],[32],[32],[37],[41],[42]; Prameha (Diabetes mellitus)[11],[14],[16],[17],[18],[24]; Shotha (Inflammation)[30],[32],[34],[37],[41],[42]; Udara Roga (Ascites)[11],[12],[13],[14],[16],[24]; Visha (Poision)[11],[13],[14],[16],[18],[24]; Anaha (Distention of abdomen)[11],[13],[14],[16],[24]; Ashmari (Lithiasis)[11],[13],[14],[16],[24]; Shoola (Colic Pain)[30],[34],[37],[41],[42]; Arsha (Piles),[30],[34],[37],[41]Kasa (Cough)[23],[31],[46]; Amavata (Rheumatism)[32],[42]; Ama Dosha (Vitiated Ama)[34],[37]; Medoroga (Obesity)[13]; Murccha (Syncope)[17]; and Kushtha[17] [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Srotas wise indications of Kampillaka

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Description of the actions and indications of Kampillaka in contrary texts, which are written during different periods, confirms the use of the drug during that period. As a single drug, Kampillaka has not been attributed in the Samhita period but its incompatibility with buttermilk has been highlighted in Charka Samhita. In the Nighantu period, its use in Krimi, Vrana, and Gulma is reported mostly by Nighantu. Its use in Kushtha and Murccha has been reported only by Madanapala Nighantu and in Medoroga it has been reported only by Gunaratnamala.

Formulation containing Kampillaka in internal administration, external administration, or both

Kampillaka as an ingredient has been included in 128 formulations; as recorded in 35 classical texts of Ayurveda. After omission, the repeated 16 formulations from collected 80 formulations; 64 formulations are included under internal administration. After omission of the repeated 16 formulations from the compiled 80 formulations, 64 formulations are found indicated for internal administration. After omission the repeated 03 formulations from collected 45 formulations, 42 formulations are found indicated for external administration. Three formulations are found for both internal or external administration. Among the formulations, the maximum dosage forms are those of Churna (31), Taila (24), Ghrita (20), Gutika (10), Lepa (10), Kalka (03), Kwatha (03), Malahara (02), Varti (02), Modaka (01), Sneha (01), Dhoopa (01), Paka (01), and Avaleha (01) [Table 7][Table 8][Table 9][Table 10][Table 11][Table 12] [Figure 2]. Kampillaka has been used in 23 disease conditions in internal administration; among them, the maximum formulations have been found in Rajyakshma (12) followed by Visarpa (09), Vatavyadhi (06), Udavarta (06), Udararoga (05) two each in Shoola, Shwasa, Sutika Roga, One each in Anaha, Apasmara, Arsha, Ashmari, Balaprashava Shoola, Chhardi, Gulma, Jvara, Kamala, kasa, Krimi, Kushtha, Mutrakruchchha, Pandu and Prameha. Kampillaka has been used in 13 disease conditions in external administration; among them, the maximum formulations have been found in Kushtha (15) followed by Vrana (12). Two each in Vipadika, Visarpa,Kandu, one each in Anaha, Arsha, Kaphavrana shotha, Granthi, Dadru, Vyanga, Shvitra, and Krimi.
Table 7: Formulations containing Kampillaka indicated in Pranavaha Srotasa disorders

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Table 8: Formulations containing Kampillaka indicated in UdakavahaSrotasa disorders

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Table 9: Formulations containing Kampillaka indicated in Annavaha Srotasa disorders

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Table 10: Formulations containing Kampillaka indicated in Rasavaha Srotasa disorders

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Table 11: Formulations containing Kampillaka indicated in Raktavaha Srotasa disorders

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Table 12: Formulations containing Kampillaka indicated in Mansavaha Srotasa disorders

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Figure 2: Various dosage forms of Kampillaka

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Pranavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Udavarta (Obstipation), Kasa (Cough), Rajyakshma (Consumption), and Shwasa (Asthma) related to Pranavaha Srotasa.

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 02 formulations in Udavarta. Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 01 formulations in Kasa, Rajyakshma, and Shwasa [Table 7].

Udakavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Udararoga (Ascites) related to Udakavaha Srotasa.

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 12 formulations indicated in Udararoga, where the maximum dosage forms are Churna and Ghrita (05) [Table 8].

Annavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Gulma (Abdominal lump), Krimi (Worms), Chhardi (Emesis), Shoola (Colic Pain), and Balaprashava Shoola (nearing delivery period pain) related to Annavaha Srotasa.

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 09 formulations indicated in Gulma, where the maximum dosage form is Churna (05); in 06 formulations indicated in Krimi, where the maximam dosage form is Churna (02); and in 01 formulations each Balaprashava Shoola, Chhardi, and Shoola.

External application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 01 formulation in Krimi [Table 9].

Rasavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Jvara (Fever), Pandu (Anemia), and Kandu (Wound) related to Udakavaha Srotasa.

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 05 formulations in Jvara; in 01 formulations in Pandu.

External application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 02 formulations in Kandu [Table 10].

Raktavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Kamala (Jaundice), Kushtha (Integumentary disease), Vipadika (Cracks in palm and sole), Shvitra (Leucoderma), Vyanga (black patches on face), Dadru (skin fungal infection), Pama (scabies), and Visarpa (Eruption).

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 01 formulations in Kushtha, Kamala, and Visarpa.

External application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 15 formulations in Kushtha; in 02 formulations in Visarpa and Vipadika; and in 01 formulations in Shvitra, Vyanga, and Dadru.

Both application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in one formulation each indicated in Kushtha and Pama [Table 11].

Mansavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Vrana (Wound), Granthi (Cyst), Shotha (Inflammation), and Karnagata Vranastrava (Otorrhoea)

External application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 12 formulations in Vrana; in one formulation each indicated in Granthi and Kaphavrana Shotha.

Both application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in one formulation each indicated in Karnagata Vranastrava [Table 12].

Medovaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Prameha (diabetes mellitus).

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 06 formulations in Prameha [Table 13].
Table 13: Formulations containing Kampillaka indicated in Medovaha Srotasa disorders

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Vatavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Vatavyadhi (Neuromuscular anomalies).

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 02 formulations in Vatavyadhi [Table 14].
Table 14: Formulations containing Kampillaka indicated in Vatavaha Srotasa disorders

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Manovaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Apasmara (Epilepsy).

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in one formulation indicated in Apasmara [Table 15].
Table 15: Formulations containing Kampillaka indicated in Manovaha Srotasa disorders

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Mutravaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Mutrakruchchha (Dysuria) and Ashmari (Lithiasis).

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in one formulation in Mutrakruchchha and Ashmari [Table 16].
Table 16: Formulations containing Kampillaka indicated in Mutravaha Srotasa disorders

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Purishavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Arsha (piles) and Anaha (distension of abdomen)

Internal application: There is 02 formulations indicated in Arsha and 01 formulation indicated in e in Anaha.

External application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 01 formulation in Arsha and Anaha.

Karma

Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 06 formulations in Virechana Karma [Table 17].
Table 17: Formulations containing Kampillaka indicated in Purishavaha Srotasa disorders

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Artavavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Sutika Roga (Puerperial disorders).

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 01 formulation in Sutika Roga [Table 18].
Table 18: Formulations containing Kampillaka indicated in Purishavaha Srotasa disorders

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Phytochemical constituents

Fruits contain chemical constituents like, Rottlerin (reddish yellow resin) 47.80% fixed oil 5.83–24% mallotoxin, kamalin, Oleic lauric, myristic, palmitic acid, stearic acid, crotoxigenin, rhammoside, octa casanol, iso rottlerin, rottlerin, homorottlerin tannins, citric acid and oxalic acid.[65],[66] The chemical constituents such as betulin, friedelin, kamaladiol-3-acetate, lipeol, tannic acid, 3hydroxy-D-A-friedoolean-3-en-2-one, 2β-hydroxy-D-A-friedooleanan-3-one, and 3αhydroxy-D-A-friedooleanan-2-one were reported from the stem bark.[67],[68],[69],[70] The seed contains a fixed oil, camul oil and a bitter glucosidal, Betulin-3 acetate lupeol acetate, berginin acetylaleuritote acid, sitosterol, bergenin, rottlerin resin, solid hydroxy acid, kamlonenic acid, linoleic, Oleic, lauric, myristic, palmitic acid, stearic acid, crotoxigenin, rhamnoside, coroghcignin, octa cosanol, iso rottlerin, rottlerin, homorottlerin, tannins, citric, and oxalic acidp.[64]

Common adulterants

Glandular hair powder of Mallotus philippensis is commonly adulterated with Annato dye (Bixa orellana Linn.), ferric oxide, brick dust, and ferruginous sand. Casearia tomentosa (stem bark powder), Carthamus tinctorius (flower powder), Ficus benghalensis (fruit powder), and Flamingia macrophylla (hairs of fruits) are also reported to be used as adulterants or substitutes of Kampillaka.[71]


  Conclusion Top


Kampillaka possesses Katu Rasa, Laghu Guna, Ushna Veerya, Katu Vipaka, and Kapha Nashaka properties. The drug is known for its medicinal properties, suhc as Rechi (Purgative), Bhedi (Purgative), Grahi (Bind stool), and Dipana (Appetizer). The fruit hair powder is also indicated in 22 clinical conditions, such as Krimi Roga [Worm], Vrana [Wound], Gulma (Abdominal Lump), Adhmana (Distention), Vibnadha (Constipation), Jvara (Fever), Kaphodara (Ascites), Pitta roga (Disoders due to pitta dosha), Prameha (Diabetes mellitus) etc. Kampillaka attains therapeutic importance in 64 formulations through internal administration, 42 formulations through external applications, and three formulations having both internal and external applications. The drug is used maximum in Churna dosage form. Kampillaka has been used in 23 disease conditions in internal application, 13 disease conditions in external application, and three disease conditions in both applications.

Acknowledgment

The authors are thankful to the Director, ITRA Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar for providing facilities to carry out the research work.

Financial Support and Sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of Interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10], [Table 11], [Table 12], [Table 13], [Table 14], [Table 15], [Table 16], [Table 17], [Table 18]



 

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