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Table of Contents
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 12-20

Dadima (Punica granatum L.), as an Aushadha (medicine), depicted in Ayurveda: A comprehensive review


Department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Submission26-Feb-2021
Date of Decision20-Feb-2021
Date of Acceptance01-Mar-2021
Date of Web Publication16-Apr-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vivek Kumar Patel
Department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat 361008, India.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JISM.JISM_14_21

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  Abstract 

Introduction: The description of plants used in Ayurveda can be traced from hundreds of written texts. Dadima (Punica granatum L.), of family Lytheraceae, is one among the plants described under Phala Varga, a classification of Aahara Varga mentioned by ancient scriptures of Ayurveda; it is highlighted for its wide range of use as an Aahara (diet) and Aushadha (drug) in different diseased conditions. Single-hand information about this plant is still lacking. Aim: To obtain comprehensive information on Dadima (as an aushadha) different classical texts of Ayurveda. Results: Thirty-two names, known as Paryaya (synonyms), have been attributed, highlighting its morphological characteristics and pharmacological properties and actions. Dadima, as an ingredient, is included in 634 formulations. Among 530 Aushadha Kalpana (a drug), 433 were indicated for its internal use, 93 for its external use, and 4 for its external as well as internal use. Dadima is indicated in 80 different diseased conditions; among them, the maximum formulations have been found to be used in Atisara (76). Various research activities, such as antidiarrheal, cardioprotective, nephroprotective, antiarthritic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory, have been reported to validate Dadima as an ingredient of various Ayurveda indications. Conclusion: Dadima as a single drug or as an ingredient in 530 formulations have been indicated for its use as an Aushadha in 80 different diseased conditions. Dadima, a drug of Phala Varga, is a very important fruit and has a wide range of clinical indications.

Keywords: Aushadha, Ayurveda, Dadima, Karma, Punica granatum, synonyms


How to cite this article:
Patel VK, Acharya R. Dadima (Punica granatum L.), as an Aushadha (medicine), depicted in Ayurveda: A comprehensive review. J Indian Sys Medicine 2021;9:12-20

How to cite this URL:
Patel VK, Acharya R. Dadima (Punica granatum L.), as an Aushadha (medicine), depicted in Ayurveda: A comprehensive review. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 May 12];9:12-20. Available from: https://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2021/9/1/12/313698




  Introduction Top


Ayurveda describes drugs of herbal origin as being the maximum to combat various disease conditions. Aahara (diet) is the best preventive medicine and its role is mentioned for the prevention and management of many diseases.[1] There are many plants such as Amalaki, Draksha etc. whose various parts are used as Aushadha (drug) and Aahara (diet). In his Brihad Samhita, Acharya Varahmihira (sixth century) imentioned that if the twig of Priyangu, Apamarga, Jambu, and Dadima were chewed as a toothbrush, it will make a person beloved of all people.[2]

Dadima, a plant described in Veda and ancient literature, is botanically identified as Punica granatum Linn. belonging to the family Lythraceae.[3] Since the Vedic period, Dadima is used for the prevention and management of diseases. Ayurveda, a branch of Atharvaveda, describes Aahara (diet), Nidra (sleep), and Brahmacharya (celibacy) as three pillars of life. Among those, Aahara (diet) is the best sustainer of life.[4] Food provides not only essential nutrients needed for life but also other bioactive compounds for health promotion and disease prevention. Acharya Charaka advocates the use of Aahara and mentioned that one should follow those in the daily regimen, which maintain health as well as prevent the onset of unborn diseases.[5]

Acharya Charaka has described 12 groups of foods (Aahara Varga), including Phala Varga, and enlisted different fruits with their properties and indications in different medical conditions.[6]Acharya Sushruta has mentioned Dadima, Amalaka, Draksha, Kharjura, Parushaka, Rajadana, and Matulunga as the best among fruits.[7]

Nutraceuticals, an emerging alternative to pharmaceuticals, is aiming at finding a food or a part of food that provides medicinal or health benefits, including prevention and treatment of disease.[8]Dadima has been considered a potent nutraceutical, as it contains various phytoconstituents that help in the treatment of various diseases. Also, it is a very commonly available fruit that is easy to get and cost-effective. Most of the Ayurveda classics mentioned the use of Dadima fruit as both Aahara and Aushadha.

There are various Ayurveda texts, published and unpublished where descriptions regarding properties, action, uses, and formulations are described. Though each Ayurveda pharmacopeia reports the clinical uses of Dadima, comprehensive single-hand information of the drug Dadima is still lacking. Hence, an attempt has been made for a meticulous review to create an exclusive database on the identification characters, properties, formulations of Dadima, indications with reported research activities as described in the available Ayurvedic pharmacopeias, compendium, and web-based search engines.


  Materials and methods Top


Search Criteria

Information regarding the drug Dadima is being compiled from the printed form of Nighantu, Samhita, Chikitsagrantha, and Rasagrantha and the online source of e-Nighantu. Each text has been scrutinized chapter by chapter, with the search word Dadima and its 32 synonyms, such as Dadntabeeja, Atipatra, Madhubeeja, Lohitapushpaka, Shukapriya, etc, for pharmacological properties, its variety, and actions. Information was extracted from available 23 Nighantu (lexicons), 26 Rasa Grantha (compendia related to Rasashastra), 18 Chikitsa Grantha (compendia), and 08 Samhita (treaties). In this review, information from various treatise and compendias such as Samhita Grantha: Charaka Samhita,[4] Sushruta Samhita,[9] Ashtanga Samgraha,[10] Aṣhtanga Hṛidaya,[11] Kashyapa Samhita,[12] Bhela Samhita,[13] Harita Samhita[14]; Samgraha Grantha, Chikitsa Grantha, and Rasa Grantha, such as Bhava Prakasha,[15] Vrindamadhava,[16] Chakradutta,[17] Gadanigraha,[18] Vangasena,[19] Sharangdhara Samhita,[20] Yogaratnakara,[21] Bhaishajya Ratnavali,[22] Sahashra Yoga,[23] Kalyanakarakam,[24] Bharata Bhaishajya Ratnakara,[25] Siddhabhaiṣajya Maṇimala,[26] Vaidya Ratnam,[27] Yoga Chintamani,[28] Vaidya Chintamani,[29] Basavarajiyam,[30] Vaidya Rahasya,[31] Anupana Manjari,[32] Rajamartanda,[33] Rasarnava Nama Rastantrama,[34] Rasendra Chudamani,[35] Rasa Prakasha Sudhakara,[36] Rasa Ratna Samucchaya,[37] Rasa Paddhati,[38] Ananda Kanda,[39] Rasa Chintamani,[40] Rasa Manjari,[41] Rasendra Chintamani,[42] Rasendra Sara Sangraha,[43] Rasa Kamadhenu,[44] Yoga Tarangini,[45] Ayurveda Prakasha,[46] Brihata Rasa Raja Sundara,[47] Rasa Raja Mahodadhi,[48] Rasa Jala Nidhi,[49] Rasayoga Sagara,[50] Rasopanishada,[51] Rasamrutam,[52] Rasendra Sambhava,[53] Abhinava Navajivana,[54] Rasa Sanketa Kalika,[55] Rasayana Sara,[56] Chikitsa Kalika,[57] Rasa Chandansu,[58] Vaidyaka Chamatkara Chintamani,[59] Nighantu Adarsha,[60] Ashtanga Nighantu,[61] Paryayaratnamala,[62] Dhanavanatari Nighantu,[61] Shabda chandrika,[63] Shodhala Nighantu,[64] Nighantusheṣa,[65] Madhava Dravyaguna,[66] Hridayadipaka Nighantu,[67] Madanapala Nighantu,[68] Kaiyadeva Nighantu,[69] Sarasavati Nighantu,[70] Bhavaprakasha Nighantu,[71] Raja Nighantu,[72] Shivakosha Nighantu,[61] Rajavallabha Nighantu,[73] Shaligrama Nighantu,[74] Madanadi Nighantu,[64] Saushruta Nighantu,[75] Siddhamantra,[76] Paryayamuktavali,[77] Laghu Nighantu,[78] and Dravyaguna Sangraha[79] has been compiled and information pertaining to Dadima has been searched for.

Formulations containing Dadima or its parts, as an ingredient, were critically studied and recorded in a specially designed information sheet. To make the presentation short, various abbreviations were created for different dosage forms such as Anjana (collyrium) (An), Asava (As), Arishta (Ar), Avleha (confection) (Al), Churna (powder) (Cr), Dhooma (fumigation) (Dm), Ghrita (medicated ghee) (Gr), Guggulu (Gu), Kalka (paste) (Kl), Kvatha (decoction) (Kv), Leha (Lh), Lepa (Paste) (Lp), Masi (Ms), Rasa Kalpana (Rk) (mercurial preparation), Sneha (oil preparation) (Sn), Svarasa (juice) (Sv), Taila (oil) (Tl), Vati (pills) (Vt), and Varti (Wick) (Vr).

Namaste portal[80] was referred for the interpretation of classical Ayurveda terminologies and their nearest English equivalents, and the terms that were not available were referred from standard dictionaries[81] and AFI.[82] Both internal and external administrations were categorized according to their Srotas of origin and were presented in a tabular form accordingly.[83]

Inclusion Criteria

This review covers up the available Ayurveda texts in both printed and e-format. If not available in printed format, “e” versions were considered. The available data were systematically presented in a precise tabular format with regards to its synonyms, classification, properties, actions, and indications on various disease conditions. The texts where information related to Dadima was available were considered as source material.

Exclusion Criteria

Samhita, Nighntus, and Rasagranthas, which are available in manuscript form, were excluded from the present research study. Non-available books were also excluded.

Data Analysis

The repetition of a single formulation noted in more than one text was considered as one.


  Result Top


Description of three varieties based on taste, that is, Madhura, Madhuramla, and Amla Dadima, were mentioned in nighantus. Maximum texts reported two varieties, that is, Madhura and Amla. Two reported three varieties (Madhura, Madhuramla, and Amla), and one text reported Madhura variety only [Table 1].
Table 1: Types of Dadima mentioned in various Nighantus

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It is emphasized in most Nighantu that Dadima is having Madhura, Amla and Kashaya Rasa, Madhura Vipaka and Snigdha, Laghu Guna, and Sheeta Veerya [Table 2].
Table 2: Rasadipanchaka of Dadima as reported in various Nighantus (lexicons)

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Ayurveda Nomenclature Through Paryaya (Synonyms)

On observation, it was found that a total of 32 synonyms have been attributed to Dadima based on their habit, morphological characters, and pharmacological properties.

On critical analysis of the synonyms attributed to Dadima, it can be summarized that the plant with many leaves (Atipatra) having a red flower (Lohitapushpaka, Raktakusuma, Raktapushpa) has fruits that are round (Vritaphala), attractive (Suphala); a simile is used to compare it with breasts (Kuchaphala) covered with a leathery rind (Valkaphala). The fruit is cut open (Dadima, Kuittma) to use scattered seeds (Karaka, Varaka) that are red (Raktabeeja), shaped like teeth (Dantabeeja) or quartz or ruby (Manibeeja), and full of juice (Rasalaka, Dadimisara). It is a good appetizer (Rochana) that is used for health (Pathyakari); the fruit is sweet–sour in taste (Phalashadava, Madhuramla, Svadamla), the favorite of parrots (Shukeshta, Shukapriya, Shukavallabha, Kiravallabha); it is known as Dadima and is botanically identified as Punica granatum L. of the family Lytheraceae [Table 3].
Table 3: Important synonyms attributed to Dadima and their interpretations

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Based on the first drug, Dadima has been classified under Parushakadi Gana, Shatapushpadi Varga. Based on Karma (pharmacological action), Dadima is classified under Chardinigrahana, Shramahara, and Hridya Mahakashaya. Based on taste, it is classified under Amla Varga. Based on habit, Dadima has been categorized under Vrikshadi and Kshupa Varga [Table 4].
Table 4: Classification of Dadima in various Samhita, Chikitsa, Rasa Grantha, and Nighantus

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Trishna, Hridya, Deepana, Grahi, Atisarajita, and Medhya Karma have been mentioned in classics. Some of the Nighantus such as Raja Nighantu and Kaiyadeva Nighantu etc. have mentioned specific Karmas of Madhura and Amla Dadima. Karma attributed to varieties is shown in brackets [Table 5].
Table 5: Karma (action) of Dadima as reported in various Nighantus (lexicons)

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On keen observation, it is noted that in all referred texts, Dadima has been used as an ingredient in 1322 formulations. After omitting repeated formulations, 634 formulations were scrutinized. Among them, 530 formulations were found to be used as an Aushadha. A maximum of 433 formulations have internal uses, 93 formulations have external uses, and four formulations have both external and internal uses [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Data collection and screening method

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Dadima containing formulations have been indicated in 80 different diseased conditions; among them, the maximum formulations have been found to be indicated in Atisara (76), followed in Aruchi (33), Gulma (32), Grahani (31), Kasa (23), Shoola (21), Trishna (20), Vatavyadhi (14), Ajeerna (14), Hridroga (14), 11 in Jvara, Arsha; 10 in Agnimandya, Prameha; Daha (9), 8 in Chardi, Vajikarana, Raktapitta, Vibandha; Shvasa (7), 6 each in Rajyakshama, Krimi, Nasagata Raktapitta, Yonivyapada, Visha Chikitsa; five each in Madatyaya, Udararoga, Palita, Unmada, Masurika; 4 each in Yakritaplihodara, Apasmara, 3 each in Udavarta, Pandu, Parikartika; 2 each in Pravahika, Visuchika and 1 each in more than 16 disease conditions [Table 6].
Table 6: Number of formulations indicated in various diseased conditions

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Many of the Ayurveda indications on Dadima noted in the classical texts of Ayurveda have been proven scientifically through research activities. Various research activities, such as antidiarrheal, cardioprotective, nephroprotective, antiarthritic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory, have been reported to validate Ayurveda indication. Details of updated pharmacological and clinical research reported on P. granatum are presented in a systematic manner in [Table 7]. It is observed that many of the Ayurveda indications claims have been proved through pharmacological and clinical studies.
Table 7: Ayurveda indications, reported formulations, and reported studies of P. granatum

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  Discussion Top


There are three varieties of Dadima that have been mentioned in Nighantus based on taste, that is, Madhura, Madhuramla, and Amla Dadima. A drug acts in accordance with its Rasa (taste), or by its qualities or post-digestive effects (Vipaka), or by its Veerya (potency), and yet other or specific actions (Prabhava).[4]Dadima has Madhura, Amla and Kashaya Rasa, Madhura Vipaka and Snigdha, Laghu Guna, and Sheeta Veerya. In Ayurveda, various names known as Paryaya (synonyms) have been attributed to a single plant to describe its morphological as well as pharmacological characters. A total of 32 synonyms have been attributed to Dadima based on their habit, morphological characters, and pharmacological properties. Based on morphology, properties, pharmacodynamics, and therapeutic values, Ayurveda ancient texts classified Dadima into Chardinigrahana, Shramahara Mahakashaya, Parushakadi Gana, Shatapushpadi Varga, etc. Various properties and karmas (action) are mentioned for Dadima based on their Rasadipanchaka. Trishna, Hridya, Deepana, Grahi, Atisarajita, and Medya Karma have been mentioned in classics. The plant is mostly indicated for its use in Atisara (76), Aruchi (33), Gulma (32), Grahani (31), Kasa (23), Shoola (21), Trishna (20), Vatavyadhi (14), etc. Various research activity has been carried out that validates the indications mentioned in classics. Some of the indications that are used for treating various diseases such as Chardi (vomiting), Arsha (piles), Gudabhramsha (rectal prolapse), Somaroga (leucorrhea), Nasagata Raktapitta (epistaxis), Shirahshoola (migraine), and anemia (Pandu) are not yet validated through scientific studies.[112]


  Conclusion Top


Classical texts of Ayurveda noted different varieties, two to three, of Dadima based on the taste of the fruits. Thirty-two synonyms have been attributed to Dadima based on their habit, morphological characters, pharmacological properties, actions, etc. The drug is known for its medicinal properties, such as Deepana (appetizer), Rochana (appetizer), Grahi (bind stool), Hridya (cardiotonic), and Shukrala (aphrodisiac). Dadima, as a single drug or 530 formulations, is used in 80 different diseased conditions; among them, the maximum formulations have been found to be indicated in Atisara (76). Dadima, a drug of Phala Varga, is a very important fruit and has a wide range of clinical indications with reported research activities. The present review may help in exploring the drug for research activities.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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