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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 69-81

A comprehensive review on formulations containing Abhraka Bhasma


Department of Rasa Shastra & Bhaisajiya Kalpana, ITRA, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Submission05-Apr-2021
Date of Decision30-Apr-2021
Date of Acceptance03-May-2021
Date of Web Publication28-Jun-2021

Correspondence Address:
Krupali Jani
Department of Rasa Shastra & Bhaisajiya Kalpana, ITRA, Jamnagar 361 008, Gujarat.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jism.jism_34_21

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  Abstract 

Background: Abhraka Bhasma, a mineral preparation commonly known in the classical texts of Ayurveda, is one of the most frequently used drugs in Ayurveda. To prepare the Bhasma, selective metallic/mineral origin materials are exposed repeatedly to Puta, which is a traditional method of Bhasma preparation. Aim: To prepare comprehensive data related to various formulations, indications, doses, anupan, etc. of Abhraka Bhasma recorded in various Ayurveda texts. Materials and Methods: This review comprises data from the Bharat Bhaishjya Ratnaker in a systematic manner related to various aspects of Abhraka Bhasma. Abhraka Bhasma is used as a major and minor ingredient in most of the formulations and a different percentage of Abhraka Bhasma in used in various Kalps of the text. Making a note of this, it has been decided to calculate the percentage of Abhraka Bhasma, anupan, dose, and therapeutic indications in different formulations. Results: It is observed that a total of 348 references related to various dosages and indications were observed, which includes various types of formulation such as rasa, Vati, gutika, leham, modak, avaleha, loham formulations, etc. In dosage form, Rasa was found the maximum, followed by Vati, Loham, Leham, Gutika, Modak, Parpatti, etc. It is also found that it is used in various disorders such as Arsha (Piles), Jwara (Fever), Prameha (Diabetes), Atisar (Diarrhea), Vaman (Emesis), Hridyaroga (Cardiac disorders), Jirnajwar (Chronic fever), Shola (Inflammation), etc. Conclusion: There are 337 formulations that are mentioned in Bharat Bhaishjya Ratnaker, in which Abhraka Bhasma is used as an ingredient and Madhu (Honey) and Godugdha (Cow’s Milk) are found to be the most commonly used Anupana (adjuvant/vehicle). About 78% of Rasa formulations have Abhraka Bhasma as an ingredient.

Keywords: Abhraka Bhasma, Ayurveda formulation, Bhasma, nanomedicine


How to cite this article:
Jani K, Bedarkar P, Patgiri B. A comprehensive review on formulations containing Abhraka Bhasma. J Indian Sys Medicine 2021;9:69-81

How to cite this URL:
Jani K, Bedarkar P, Patgiri B. A comprehensive review on formulations containing Abhraka Bhasma. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 29];9:69-81. Available from: https://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2021/9/2/69/319465




  Introduction Top


Bhasma is a type of herbometallic Ayurveda preparation that involves repeated incineration of various metals/or their ores mixed with a decoction of various herbal products in a Puta (repeating cycles) system of incineration. These preparations are often considered nanomedicines, as the components of the final product generally possess a size in the nanometer range.[1]

Bhasma is a unique and important organometallic preparation that is used in Ayurveda therapeutics. Bhasma is a complex structure that is generally prepared by repeated incineration of metals and minerals with medicinal herb decoctions or juices. Abhraka Bhasma is the Bhasma of the mineral, mica (Biotite) [K(Mg, Fe)3(AlSiO10)(OH)2]. Its synthesis involves repeated calcinations, which transform the metallic state into a corresponding oxide form. Calcination is repeated for 10 cycles (Dasa Puta), 100 cycles (Satha Puta), 1000 cycles (Sahastra Puta), etc. Going by its brick red color, the end product is iron oxide, probably Fe2O3. Biotite shows up with FeO and Fe2O3.[1],[2] Typically, any Bhasma is prepared through Shodhana, Bhavana, and Marana processes. These different levels of treatment ensure that Bhasma is free from toxicity at therapeutic doses.[1]

Abhrak Bhasma is an excellent cellular regenerator and a nervine tonic. It is indicated in various chronic diseases such as tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and many types of cardiac diseases.[2],[3]Abhraka Bhasma is widely used in cases of pernicious and sickle cell anemia, Bells Palsy, hepatic dysfunction, leukemia, sex debility, azoospermia, cystic fibrosis, post-encephalic dysfunction, and cervical dysplasia, to name a few. Its primary use is as an aphrodisiac, an astringent, and a restorative (powerful cell regenerator).[3],[4] Ayurveda texts provide information about its properties, characters, and pharmacological actions and indications. Samhita, Chikitsagrantha, and Rasa Grantha provide information about various dosage forms and their usage in different disease conditions, in different contexts. Single-hand information on several pharmacological actions of Abhraka Bhasma is still lacking. This study is, therefore, focused on the review work to create an exclusive database on the different applications of Abhraka Bhasma from classical Ayurveda Bharat Bhaishjaya Ratnakar.


  Materials and Methods Top


In this review, information from the classical texts of Ayurveda; Bharat Bhaishjaya Ratnakar was taken into consideration. Information related to Abhraka Bhasma was searched and compiled. Formulations containing Abhraka Bhasma as an ingredient were critically studied and recorded in a specially designed information sheet. Various Ayurveda technical terms were presented with their equivalent English terms by referring to the well-accepted dictionaries. English equivalents of various disease conditions and dosage forms were referred from NAMASTE ayush portal by the Ministry of AYUSH (developed and maintained by CCRAS, Govt. of India).[4],[5]

Percentage Calculation of Abhraka Bhasma

Method of calculation: Percentage of AB = 100 × weight of NB/weight of total solid ingredients (including AB); for example, in Baidhynathrasa (R.R.S 14/49–52), the total weight of all ingredients (mineral and herbal) is 90.003g, out of which 1.5g is AB. The percentage of AB is 100 × 1.5g/90.003g = 1.66, that is, Godugdh is not considered for calculation.

Percentage quantity is calculated in accordance with the solid constituents, where ingredients such as decoctions (Kwatha), fresh juices (Swarasa), ghee (Ghrita-clarified butter), and honey (Madhu) are not taken into consideration. Calculation is based on the raw ingredients obtained before the pharmaceutical processes.


  Results Top


Bharat Bhaishjaya Ratnakar, being a comprehensive source for compilation of Abhraka Bhasma formulations, which includes total 337 references related to various dosages and indications. Most common dosage forms are mentioned in [Figure: 1], that is, Rasa, Vati, Gutika, Modaka, Paka, Leham, Dhruti, Churna, Parpati and Mandoor. Totally 262 numbers of various types of formulation, such as Rasa, Vati, Gutika, Leham, Modak, Avaleha, Loham formulations, etc, and procedures of Shodhana and marana along with indications in various disorders were compiled as shown in [Table 1][Table 2][Table 3][Table 4][Table 5] (formulation containing Abhraka Bhasma as an ingredient along with dose, % of Abharak, Anupana, and indications).{Figure: 1}
Table 1: List of the formulations containingAbhraka Bhasma (B.B.R.[5] Part 1)

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Table 2: List of the formulations containing Abhraka Bhasma (B.B.R.[6] Part 2)

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Table 3: List of the formulations containing Abhraka Bhasma (B.B.R.[7] Part 3)

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Table 4: List of the formulations containing Abhraka Bhasma (B.B.R.[8] Part 4)

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Table 5: List of formulations containing Abhraka Bhasma (B.B.R.[9] Part 5)

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On keen observation, it is noted that Abhraka Bhasma has been used as either a single dosage form or an ingredient in the formulations, and some of these ingredients were repeated. It is also found that it is used in various disorders such as Arsha, Jwara (Fever), Prameha (Diabetes), Atisar (Diarrhea), Agnimandya (Low digestive fire), Amlapitta (Acidity), Pandu (Jaundice), Kamla (Anemia), Aruchi (Loss of appetite), Vaman, Hridyaroga, Jirnajwar (Chronic fever), Shola (Inflammation), Kasa- Svasa (Respiratory disorders), Raktatisar (Bleeding stools), Mutrakriccha (Urinary disorders), Rasayana (Rejuvenation), Jwaratisara (Diarrhea due to fever), Grahani (Disorders of the lower gastrointestinal tract, GIT), Gulma (Abdominal lump due to Vata), Vatavyadhi (Neuromuscular anomalies), Daha (Burning sensation), etc.


  Research Work Done on Abhraka Bhasma Top


Abhrak Bhasma is one such traditional Ayurveda preparation that is being used in the treatment of several ailments. It is observed that herbomineral complexes are more stable and more interactive compared with plain herbs, as these result in faster therapeutic action and have a longer shelf life.[7],[10] Due to the nano-size of the constituents, Abhrak Bhasma and more specifically the acid-modified moieties of it can readily cross the lining of the GI tract to ensure its bioavailability.[8],[11]Shataputi and Sahastraputi Abhraka Bhasma are, indeed, unique attributes of Abhrak. Abhrak Bhasma is repeatedly subjected to Puta (incineration in a closed earthen vessel). Abhrak Bhasma shows concentration-dependent positive in vitro anticancer activity on all three cell lines, with highly significant activity on prostate cancer cell lines. Anticancer activity of Abhraka Bhasma is in the order 100 Puti > 50 Puti > 20 Puti. Shataputi Abhraka Bhasma has maximum activity on prostate cancer cell lines.[9],[12]

Abhraka Bhasma has been found to modulate the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes as well as the total reduced glutathione (GSH) content. Larvae and adults feeding on a diet supplemented with AB exhibit significantly lower levels of total GSH content (a decrease of about 40–70% for larvae, whereas 31–36% for adults) and without any conclusive effect on GSH:oxidized glutathione ratio, free radical scavenging capacity, and extent of lipid peroxidation. These larvae and adults fed on a diet supplemented with AB also exhibited an increase in the level of transcription of cap “n” collar C, heat shock protein 70, and catalase genes (≥1.5 fold, except in a few cases).[10],[13] During the analytical study, it was found that Abhrak Bhasma is a combination of iron, aluminum, silica, magnesium, potassium, and zinc.[11],[14]Abhraka Bhasma induces the secretion of insulin from the pancreas, hence it is used in the treatment of Type I Diabetes mellitus.[12],[15] It also acts as a nervine tonic that strengthens and rehabilitates the tissue precisely and commits to the healing of impaired nervous tissue. It is a well-known hematinic that has the ability to increase the red blood cell count, which enhances the oxygen-carrying capacity.[13],[16]

The toxicity study carried out using carbon tetrachloride has shown that Abhraka Bhasma is the oxide form of the minerals that are poorly soluble; hence, it does not show any hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in male Albino rats.[14],[17]


  Discussion Top


Bhasma is a unique and important organometallic preparation used in Ayurveda therapeutics. Bhasma is a complex structure that is generally prepared by repeated incineration of metals and minerals with medicinal herb decoctions or juices. Abhraka Bhasma is an excellent cellular regenerator and nervine tonic.

Bharat Bhaishjaya Ratnakar Part 1

In the first part, 23 Rasa, five Vati, two Gutika, one Modak, two Paka, one Leham, five different references related to Abhraka Bhasma formulation, Shodhana procedure, and Amruttav have been mentioned. The formulations mentioned more than one time are considered as one while during percentage they considered different as same formulation when mentioned more than one time contain different Abhraka Bhasma percentage. Highest percentage of Abhraka Bhasma has been mentioned in Indu Vati 30.76% used in 20 types of Prameha having dose of two Ratti and Amla Swarasa is used as Anupana while lowest percentage is mentioned in Amlapittantako Modak 0.65% used in Amlapitta, Prameha, Bhrama and Vaman. In majority of the formulation of Madhu, Amalarasa, Ghrita, Dogadha, Mircha, Sunthi, Madhu and Dashmoola has been mentioned as Anupana. Overall, 19 formulations have been mentioned as having 1–10% of Abhraka Bhasma, 17 having 11–20%, and four having 21–30%.

Bharat Bhaishjaya Ratnakar Part 2

In the second part, 59 Rasa, four Vati, three Leham, one Druti, and two Churna formulations have been mentioned. Highest percentage of Abhraka Bhasma has been mentioned in Gagansundaro Rasa 80% used in dose of two Ratti in Kashya, Gulma, Prameha followed by Jotishpunjo Rasa 50% used in Charmakushtha having dose of one Masha and Neem, Ankola, Amlatas is used as Anupana and in Jeevananadabhrak havind dose of one ratti used in Swasa, Rasayan, Aruchi, Jwara, and Vaman. Gaganya rasayanam 50% used in pittajawar while lowest percentage is mentioned in Grahnishardol Churna 1.61% used in Grahni, Trishna, Jwara, Amatisar. In majority of the formulations Madhu, Guda yukta Takra, Jala, Javakhar, Sajikhar, Ghrita, Rice water, Jeerak Churna, Pittapapda, Triphala Kwatha, Dugadha, Bakri Dugdha, Mishri and Dashmoola have been mentioned as anupana. Overall, 26 formulations have been mentioned as having 1–10% of Abhraka Bhasma, 26 having 11–20%, six having 21–30%, 12 having 31–40%, four having 41–50%, and one having 80%.

Bharat Bhaishjaya Ratnakar Part 3

In the third part, 25 Rasa, two Parpati, four Vati, one Mandoor, two Loham, and one Leham formulation have been mentioned. The highest percentage of Abhraka Bhasma has been mentioned in Nagarjuna Abhraka Rasa 100% used in Aruchi, Agnimandya, Atisar having dose of one ratti while lowest percentage is mentioned in Purnakalo Vati 3.57% used in dose of two Masha with Takra in Daha, Jwar, Chardi. In majority of the formulations Godugadha, Ushna Jala, Haridra, Ghrita, Triphala, Jeeraka, Dashmoola, Tulasi, Madhu, Talamakhana Kwatha, Mishri, Mukethi and Guduchi have been mentioned as Anupana. Overall, 16 formulations have been mentioned as having 1–10% of Abhraka Bhasma, 25 having 11–20%, four having 21–30%, one having 50%, and one having 100%.

Bharat Bhaishjaya Ratnakar Part 4

In the fourth part, 51 Rasa, six Vati, five Loham, two Churna, one Gutika, one Avaleha, two Churna, and two Yoga formulations have been mentioned. Highest percentage of Abhraka Bhasma has been mentioned Vibhadra Abhraka 100% used in Udaroga, Aruchi, Gulma, Daha having dose of one Ratti while lowest percentage is mentioned in Vangeshwaradi Vati 0.92% used in dose of one Tola used in Atisar, Grahni, Jwar. In majority of the formulations Madhu, Naveneet, Adaraka, Godhugadha, Ushna Jala, Ghrita, Triphala, Nagarmotha, Devdaru and Haritaki have been mentioned as Anupana. Overall, 48 formulations have been mentioned as having 1–10% of Abhraka Bhasma, 22 having 11–20%, four having 21–30%, two having 31–40%, one having 41–50%, one having 51–600%, and one having 100%.

Bharat Bhaishjaya Ratnakar Part 5

In the fifth part, 46 Rasa, four Loham two Vati, two Gutika, one Loham, and one Modak formulation have been mentioned. Highest percentage of Abhraka Bhasma has been mentioned Someshwaro Rasa 33.33% used in kushtha having dose of one nishak and while lowest percentage is mentioned in Shothadarariloham 0.044% used in dose of three Ratti used Arsha, Bhagandar, Udaroga. In majority of the formulations Godugdha, Madhu, Adaraka, Jeeraka, Ushna Jala, Ghrita, Shunthi, Maricha and Dashmoola Swarana Bhasma have been mentioned as anupana. Overall, 36 formulations have been mentioned as having 1–10% of Abhraka Bhasma, 23 having 11–20%, one having 21–30%, and four having 31–40%.


  Conclusion Top


There are 337 formulations of Bharat Bhaishjaya Ratnakar containing Abhraka Bhasama. In dosage form, Rasa was found the maximum, followed by Vati, Loham, Leham, Gutika, Modak, Parpati, etc. A total of 10 dosages was used as Vati, Gutika (flat circular), churna (Powder), Rasa (incenerated form), Avaleha, Pak (confection), Parpati (flake of black mercuric sulfide), Druti (medicated oil), Loham (Iron preparations), and Modak (big circular mass). The formulations having Abharasa bhasama as an ingredient are indicated in the treatment in various diseases. Abhraka Bhasma finds a wide range of therapeutic importance in the form of various formulations in the texts of Ayurveda. Among all the dosage forms, Abhraka Bhasma is mostly administered in Rasa form along with a combination of other ingredients. In most of the cases, Madhu and Godhugdha are used as anupan and the dose varies from ½ Ratti to Tola. Bhasama, if prepared properly, is readily absorbable, adaptable, and assimilated into the body without being toxic. However, more intense studies are needed for a better understanding of the components of Abhrak Bhasma and its use in the prevention and curation of various diseases.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

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