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Table of Contents
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 90-96

Review on the importance of Mutra (urine) in Visha Chikitsa (treatment of poison)


P.G. Department of Agad Tantra, National Institute of Ayurveda, Amer Road, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Date of Submission04-Apr-2021
Date of Decision15-Jun-2021
Date of Acceptance26-May-2021
Date of Web Publication28-Jun-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Narsingh Patel
P.G. Department of Agad Tantra, National Institute of Ayurveda, Amer Road, Jaipur 302002, Rajasthan.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jism.jism_32_21

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  Abstract 

The present review is aimed at providing comprehensive information about Mutra of different animals that are used as a medicine for the treatment of different kinds of animate and inanimate poison, in the contemporary context. Different Ayurveda texts such as Charak Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Ashtang Sangraham, Ashtang Hridayam etc. and their respective commentaries in Sanskrit as well as Hindi that have been referred for this literary work are compiled. Articles on different websites are also combined for this study. For the discussion, all of the gathered information has been reorganized and critically evaluated, with the aim of drawing some useful conclusions. The review method adopted was a critical review, in which classical and contemporary literature pertaining to pollution was extensively researched and critically evaluated. The conceptual contribution of Ayurveda in defining the antitoxic properties of urine has been symbolized. Formulations made with the help of Mutra are used through various routes, that is, Anjan, Pan, Nasya, Abhyang, Lepa etc., and these are indicated in different poisoning conditions. Thus, from the observation and results just cited, pertaining to eight types of urine given by Ayurveda, we can conclude that the urine of cows and goats possesses major poisonous destructive activity and other kinds of urine are not given much importance, especially in the context of Visha Chikitsa. In today’s context, these formulations are very useful in the condition of cumulative poison, concocted poison, and artificial poisoning. Mutra is used as an adjuvant in various antitoxic formulations, because it helps in proper digestion and absorption of drugs and food material, ultimately leading to an increased bioavailability.

Keywords: Mutra, poisons, Visha Chikitsa, (anti-poisonous)


How to cite this article:
Patel N, Kadu A, Yadav S. Review on the importance of Mutra (urine) in Visha Chikitsa (treatment of poison). J Indian Sys Medicine 2021;9:90-6

How to cite this URL:
Patel N, Kadu A, Yadav S. Review on the importance of Mutra (urine) in Visha Chikitsa (treatment of poison). J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 29];9:90-6. Available from: https://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2021/9/2/90/319464




  Introduction Top


Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many other animals and it is excreted from the body. Urine has been elaborately explained in the anthology of Ayurveda and described in “Sushruta Samhita,” “Ashtanga Sangraha,” and other Ayurveda texts as an effective medicinal substance of an animal origin with numerous therapeutic properties. Eight types of urine of animal origin have been mentioned in Brihattrayi, which include urine of Avi (Sheep), Aja (Goat), Go (Cow), Mahish (Buffalo), Hasti (Elephant), Ushtra (Camel), Haya (Horse), and Khara (Ass).[1] Ayurveda Classics describe cow’s urine to be the most potent medicine among all animal urine and is to be used when specific animal is not mentioned in any classical formulations.[2] All these Mutras (eight types of urine from different animals) are Tikshna (Sharp), Ushna (Hot), Katu (Pungent), Tikta (bitter) with Lavan Rasa (salty) as a secondary taste, Laghu (easily digestible), and Bhedi (promotive of evacuation). They relieve Kaphaja and Vataja disorders, those caused by Krimi (worms), Meda (excessive adiposity), Visha (poisoning), Gulma (gaseous swelling of the abdomen), Arsha (piles), skin diseases including leprosy, Shopha (swelling), Agnimandya (loss of appetite), Pandu (pallor), and Hridya (cardiotonic). They are Dipaniya and Pachaniya (digestive and carminative) in function.[3]

According to Bhavaprakash, Nara Mutra (human urine) is termed “Rasayan” (rejuvenative) and Gara Visha Nashak (pacifying concocted poison), which can rejuvenate even an aged person, cleanse the blood, and serve as treatment for all skin diseases.[4] The antitoxic property of human urine is also mentioned by Sushruta.[5]

Agadtantra is one of the important branches of Ashtang Ayurveda that represents a branch of toxicology (Visha Chikitsa Vigyan). In Agadtantra, various antitoxic preparations in which urine is widely used have been mentioned. Cow urine is extensively used for the purification and detoxification of many Visha Dravyas (poisonous drug) and minerals such as Dhatura(Dhatura metel), Guggulu (Commiphera mukul),Louha (iron), Bhallataka(Semecarpus anacardium), Aconite (Aconitum napellus), silver, gold etc. are purified by urine, thus suggesting its antitoxic property.

There is a growing body of literature to suggest that different varieties of urine improve the bioavailability of a drug/formulation because of its action-augmenting property as well as penetration-enhancing property. This principle is known as “Yogvahi” in Ayurveda, and it is used to increase the effect of medicines by raising their oral bioavailability (especially of medicines with poor oral bioavailability), lowering their dosage, and avoiding parenteral routes of drug administration. Hence, in Agadtantra, it has been used either as an ingredient or as Bhavana Dravya (used for trituration) for the preparation of different antitoxic formulations that are intended to manage various poisoning conditions.

Cow urine is an effective antibacterial agent against a wide variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as some drug-resistant bacteria, according to various in vitro studies. Some antimicrobial drugs benefit from it as a bio-enhancer.[6] It has antifungal, anti-helminthic, and anti-neoplastic action, and it is useful in hypersensitivity reactions and in numerous other diseases, including increasing the life span of a person. Latest research has shown that cow urine is an immune enhancer. Modern science has also confirmed the therapeutic properties of cow urine.[7] Indigenous cow urine contains “Rasayana Tatva,” which is responsible for inflection of the body defense mechanism and also acts as a bio-enhancer.[8]

Hence, there is a need to understand the role of the use of different type of urine in Agadtantra. An attempt has been made in this review article to provide comprehensive information about Mutra of different animals that are being used in Agadtantra as a medicine for the treatment of different poisoning conditions of animate and inanimate poison, establishing its action within a contemporary context.


  Materials and Methods Top


Different Ayurveda texts such as Charak Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Ashtang Sangraham, Ashtang Hridayam etc. and their respective commentaries in Sanskrit as well as Hindi where the urine of different animals and their antitoxic property are mentioned have been referred for this literary work. The relevance of Mutra in the form of Visha Chikitsa (treatment of poison) and their Vishaghna Guna (antitoxic property) is also researched using articles from different websites. For the discussion, all of the gathered information has been reorganized and critically reviewed, and an attempt has been made to draw certain meaningful insights.


  Observations Top


Therapeutic Uses of Mutra in Samhitas

  1. Use of Mutra in Visha Yog according to Charaka Samhita is described in [Table 1].


  2. Use of Mutra in Visha Yog according to Sushruta Samhita is described in [Table 2].


  3. Use of Mutra in Visha Yog according to Ashtanga Samgraha and Ashtanga Hridaya is described in [Table 3].


  4. Use of animal urine in different types of Visha through various routes is described in [Table 4].
Table 1: Use of Mutra in Visha Yoga according to Charaka Samhita

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Table 2: Use of Mutra in Visha Yoga according to Sushruta Samhita

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Table 3: Use of Mutra in Visha Yoga according to Ashtanga Samgraha and Ashtanga Hridaya

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Table 4: Use of animal urine in different types of Visha through various routes

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In ancient times, Aja Mutra (Goat urine) was given great importance in the preparation of various medicines; afterward, cow urine became important. Goat urine is astringent-sweet, beneficial for channels and it alleviates all Doshas. Goat urine is Katu (pungent and bitter), slightly aggravates, and alleviates coughs, dyspnea, edema, jaundice, and anemia.[40] The nitrogenous components of normal goat urine are uric acid, nitrogen, urea, allantoin, creatinine, and ammonia, according to biochemical evaluation. Bicarbonates and carbonates, phosphates and sulfates, chlorides, magnesium, and calcium are also non-nitrogenous constituents.[41] In Ayurveda, goat urine is reported to have anti-tubercular properties. As testified by many scholars, patients suffering from Rajayakshma (pulmonary tuberculosis) should reside with goats in the same room; alternatively, the patient’s room, in which he stays, should be decorated and tiled with goat urine and feces. Goat urine is also taken orally for the treatment of tuberculosis.[42],[43] According to previous research that has been conducted,[44] some plants have shown significant activity against Mycobacterium in in vitro studies, among which rhizomes of Curcuma caesia Roxb. and Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe. also show significant activity against Mycobacterium species. Goat urine has also been reported to have anti-tubercular activity. Considering the traditional therapeutic use of goat urine and the potency of herbs, especially C. caesia Roxb. and C. zedoaria Roscoe., it was considered worthwhile to carry out a study on the efficacy of the extracts of the mentioned plants using goat urine as menstruum. On the basis of the traditional therapeutic claim of goat urine, it was expected to have improved efficacy (additive/ synergistic) of both the plants and the urine. Thus, this is a novel approach toward the treatment of tuberculosis. The findings of the earlier study would provide a new dimension in establishing and validating traditional claims and it would also provide ample opportunities for further research.


  Discussion Top


For centuries, people have used various forms of urine, including human and animal urine, for medicinal purposes everywhere in the world. Ayurveda describes different types of urine and its uses in different treatment modalities, including Visha Chikitsa. It is being used as an ingredient or as Bhawna Dravya for the preparation of different Ayurveda formulations. It is also used as Anupan in different ailments. Agadtantra, one of the important branches of Ayurveda, describes the multiple uses of different types of urine. Aacharyas brilliantly utilized different types of urine as the best vehicle for drug delivery in Visha Chikitsa. The purpose of using these different forms of urine ensures the better bioavailability of Vishghna Dravya at an action site. Considering this as a promising medium of drug delivery, multiple references have been found where it is used for the management of different poisoning conditions.

In spite of the multiple uses of urine, only cow and goat urine has been found to be used for the preparation of different Vishaghna Yogas (antitoxic formulations). Totally, 34 Vishghna Yoga have been found in which cow and goat urine is used. Totally, 22 formulations have been found where Gomutra is used. Due to its enhancing properties of many drugs, it is frequently used either as Bhawna Dravya or mixed with other medicines for local application as well as for internal administration. Among all types of urine, Gomutra is considered as the best urine and it is used as Anukta in different preparations where the name of Mutra is not mentioned. Aja Mutra is used in totally nine formulations; however, only three formulations have been observed, namely Amrita Ghritam, Shirish Twagadi Ghritam, and Gandha Hasti Agad, in which both kinds of urine are used. The most popular and simple route of drug administration is the oral route. In the oral medication form, cow urine is mostly used; whereas in Anjan, goat urine is used more than cow urine. Bilvadi Agad has been used most frequently in the context of Jangam Visha Chikitsa.

No Gara Vishaghna Yoga has been found in which Nara Mutra is used in spite of its Gara Vishaghna property. Further research is expected to explore the Gara Vishaghna action in different in vivo and in vitro study models. The use of different kinds of urine for the preparation of different Vishaghna Yoga has been found only in the context of Jangam and Garavisha chikitsa. In the context of Sthavar and Dushivisha Chikitsa, no Vishaghna Yoga has been found in which any type of urine is used.

Mutra of different animal origin is one of the widely used promising mediums for drug delivery in Visha chikitsa. All types of Mutras have Tikshna, Ushna, and Laghu Guna (property). They possess Katu, Tikta Rasa with Lawan Anurasa (secondary taste). They are described under Katu Skandha and Virechan Gana. They act as Vat Kapha Shamak; because of their Ushna, Tikshna Guna they counteract poison and enhance the effect of different medicines.

Urine has been found to be beneficial in the treatment of worm infestations, skin ailments, urticarial and allergic rashes, pain in the abdomen due to indigestion, constipation, ascites, and in other diseases. Cow urine is widely used in Ayurveda pharmaceuticals for enhancing the properties of many drugs, by giving Bhavana (repeated trituration). In Shodhana (purification) of metals, cow urine is extensively used. The milk or urine of cow has been mentioned for a specific therapeutic use. Urine has been externally used as Utsadan (powder massage), Aalepa (paste application), Avagah (bath), and Parishek (medicated liquid to be poured); it has been internally used in the preparation of different formulations in Panchkarma procedure, for instance Aasthapan Basti (herbal decoction enema) and as a drink for Virechan Karma (purgation therapy). Charaka, Sushruta, and all other ancient physicians have attributed high value to cow urine. Even though the urine of various animals is used for making formulations, cow urine has been found to be of the highest value in comparison to other urine.

Cow urine cleanses and replaces all blocks in the body’s channels (Shrotoshodhaka). It also serves as a bio-enhancer for certain antimicrobial drugs. The following study was conducted to validate various properties of cow urine:

  1. Antimicrobial activity: Cow urine distillate was tested for antimicrobial activity against clinical pathogenic microorganisms, such as Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klabsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi, and the fungi Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. The antibacterial activity of cow urine distillate (5, 10, and 15 μL) against pathogenic microbes was found to be highest against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi.


  2. Cow urine distillate was tested for antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus, with Aspergillus niger showing greater growth inhibition than Aspergillus flavus.[45],[46]


  3. Anthelmintic activity: Cow urine concentrate outperformed piperazine citrate as an anthelmintic agent at both 1% and 5% concentrations.[47]


  4. Immunomodulatory activity: Cow urine distillate was observed to increase the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, blastogenesis and to increase the levels of IgG in mice and chicks (avian species).[48],[49] Cow urine has been shown to be an excellent immune booster in recent studies.[50]


  5. Wound-healing activity: The wound-healing activity of cow urine in wistar albino rats was investigated using an excision wound model. According to one study, applying cow urine to a wound externally speeds up the healing process.[51]


  6. Antidiabetic activity: The effect of cow urine formulation (Gomutra ark, GoA) on alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was investigated. Wistar albino rats of either sex and weighing 200–250g were used. Blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde (MDA) release were the biochemical parameters measured.[52]


  7. Antioxidant activity: Fresh urine and its distillates were tested for antioxidant activity using two methods: DPPH (2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and Superoxide scavenging activity. Ascorbic acid was used as the reference. The radical scavenging activity of DPPH was measured using the spectrophotometric method.[53]


  8. Composition and their action of cow urine: Vitamin A, B complex, C, D, E, minerals, enzymes, creatinine, lactose, hormones, gold acids, nitrogen, phosphate, sodium, hippuric acid, manganese, carbolic acid, iron, silicon, chlorine, magnesium, maleic acid, citric, tartaric, and calcium salts are among the substances contained in cow urine. Cow urine contains 95% water, 2.5% urea, 24 separate salts, and 2.5% enzymes.


The presence of hippuric acid eliminates contaminants by urine, whereas manganese and carbolic acid have germicidal properties, preventing germ growth and protecting against gangrene decay. Aurum hydroxide is a germicidal agent that improves immunity and is antibacterial and antitoxic. Phenol has bactericidal properties against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, making it a powerful antimicrobial agent. Calcium has germicidal, blood-purifying, and bone-strengthening properties.[54] Cow urine contains copper and gold salts, which are elixirs. The composition of cow urine is similar to that of the human body. Therefore, cow urine intake is beneficial in preserving the balance of these compounds and curing incurable diseases. In the present era, poisoning causes serious ailments in life as has been experienced by the people since ancient times. The hypothetical indications for urine therapy, ancient or current, are too numerous to be dealt with.[55]


  Conclusion Top


Thus, from the observation and results cited earlier, based on the eight types of urine given by Ayurveda, we can conclude that cow and goat urine has major poisonous destructive activity and other urine is not given much importance, especially in the context of Visha Chikitsa. Thus, cow and goat urine prevent ailments caused due to poisonous intake and help to eliminate and cleanse the chemical toxins. Formulations made with the help of Mutra are used through various routes, that is, Anjan, Pan, Nasya, Abhyang, Lepa etc., which are indicated in different poisoning conditions. In today’s context, these formulations are very useful in the condition of cumulative poison, concocted poison, and artificial poisoning. Mutra is used as an adjuvant in various antitoxic formulations, because it helps in proper digestion and absorption of drugs and food material, ultimately leading to an increased bioavailability. The antitoxic property of cow urine and goat urine is explained in Brihatrayi but till now there are no clinical data and research work available regarding the antitoxic property of both cow and goat urine in the modern context. This review article gives the researcher new ideas to validate the antitoxicity of both cow and goat urine, as mentioned by Ayurveda.

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Conflicts of interest

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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