• Users Online: 164
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 
Table of Contents
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 228-233

A critical review of Vishaghna Dravya mentioned in Madanpal Nighantu


1 Department of Ayurveda, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India
2 P.G. Department of Agad Tantra, National institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
3 Aayush Department, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh, India

Date of Submission04-Jan-2022
Date of Decision11-Dec-2022
Date of Acceptance12-Dec-2022
Date of Web Publication31-Dec-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Chandradev Pandey
Department of Agadtantra, National Institute of Ayurveda, Rajasthan
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jism.jism_3_22

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Background: Agada Tantra is the branch of Ayurveda that deals with food poisoning, snakebites, dog bites, insect bites, etc. Envenoming is an important public health problem in India. In modern, there are various treatments including anti-venoms for poisoning. But still, there is a lacuna in treatment due to the side effect of contemporary treatment. But in Ayurveda, various drugs are described, having antitoxic properties, without any side effects. Aim: To provide comprehensive information about Vishaghna Dravya (anti-toxic drug) mentioned in Madanpal Nighantu which is used as a medicine for the treatment of different animate, inanimate poison, and metallic poison. Materials and Methods: Ayurveda text Madanpal Nighantu in Sanskrit as well as Hindi where the Dravya (drug) of different origins and their antitoxic property are mentioned have been referred for this literary work. Knowing the relevance of drugs in the form of Visha Chikitsa (treatment of poison) and their Vishaghna Guna (antitoxic property). For the discussion, all of the gathered information has been reorganized and critically reviewed, and an attempt has been made to draw certain meaningful insights. Results and Conclusion: In this article, we focused on various Vishahar Dravya mentioned in Madanpal Nighantu, based on Rasa, Guna, Virya, and Vipaka, and out of 500 drugs in Madanpal Nighantu there are 74 drugs having Vishaghna properties. This Nighantu generally describe drugs having action against different type of poisons such as Jangam, Sthavar, and Dhatu Visha. Visha-Upavisha Dravyas from the therapeutic point of view are considered highly valuable in accordance with their quick effectiveness even in smaller doses.

Keywords: Anti-venom, Dravya, Visha, Vishghna


How to cite this article:
Pandey C, Kadu AS, Sharma A, Patel N. A critical review of Vishaghna Dravya mentioned in Madanpal Nighantu. J Indian Sys Medicine 2022;10:228-33

How to cite this URL:
Pandey C, Kadu AS, Sharma A, Patel N. A critical review of Vishaghna Dravya mentioned in Madanpal Nighantu. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 9];10:228-33. Available from: https://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2022/10/4/228/366509


  Introduction Top


Agada Tantra is the branch of Ayurveda which is always depicted as the science that deals with the different sources of poison, types of poisons, their signs and symptoms of poisoning, complications, and their management. The word Visha itself conveys that these are the drugs that take Prana (life) of the person. Hence they are always looked in a pessimistic way rather than an optimistic approach. Though they are deadly but they also have potential benefits when used in a correct manner. Hence classical text has mentioned various formulations that contain Visha Dravyas (poisonous drugs) with proper purification. Visha is said to be Yogavahi (synergic) so when added with formulation, they not only enhance the quality of the formulation but also help in quicker action and relieve the conditions. But at the same time, they are very dangerous also, as these may prove fatal to the human being when used without proper care and in higher doses.[1]Visha and Upavisha have a potential role and these drugs if used in therapeutic Matra (dosage) can be safely used in various ailments.[2]

Herbs described in Ayurveda are a local heritage with global importance. In today’s era, there is a growing demand for traditional based medicines, health products, cosmetics, etc. Different types of plants that have been mentioned in traditional practices are being used against snake bites and other animal bites. Ayurveda is a bundle of traditional medicines comprises of vegetable, animal, metals, and minerals drugs. Visha is considered as a major factor for the causation of various exogenous diseases (Agantuja Vyadhi). Poison is described as a substance that acts against the whole body immediately after ingestion.

Drugs that act against these qualities of toxic substances are called Vishaghna. The herbal medicine mentioned in Ayurvedic classical text is being drawing the attention of modern science for carrying out research studies for various health ailments with proper scientific validation. Nighantu has been written to give particular importance to the identification and therapeutic properties of medicinal plants. Madanpal Nighantu is the Nighantu dealing with synonyms and properties of drugs available at present. This text is thought to be composed before the 13th century AD as mentioned in various Samhitas. This review is an attempt to focus on the plant mentioned in Madanpal Nighantu which generally acts as Vishahara Dravyas (anti-toxic drugs). This data is presented as per Vishahara action with respect to herbal, mineral, and animal-origin drugs which belong to different Varga [Table 1][Table 2][Table 3][Table 4][Table 5][Table 6][Table 7]. In this Nighantu, the author has mentioned various single drugs which having Vishaghna Karma. It includes 500 drugs in 13 Vargas out of which Vishaghna drugs are described in 10 Vargas which in total comprises of 74 Vishaghna drugs.
Table 1: Anti-toxic drugs and their properties mentioned in chapter Abhayadi Varga

Click here to view
Table 2: Anti-toxic drugs and their properties mentioned in chapter Sunthyadi Varga

Click here to view
Table 3: Anti-toxic drugs and their properties mentioned in chapter Karpooradi Varga

Click here to view
Table 4: Antitoxic drugs and their properties mentioned in chapter Swarnadi Varga

Click here to view
Table 5: Anti-toxic drugs and their properties mentioned in chapter Vatadi Varga

Click here to view
Table 6: Anti-toxic drugs and their properties mentioned in chapter Phaladi Varga

Click here to view
Table 7: Showing the number of Vishaghna Dravya according to their specific Vishaghna property

Click here to view



  About Nighantu Top


Madanpal Nighantu, also called Madana Vinod or Madan Nighantu was composed by Madanpal. The date and composition of the work is 1375 AD. Madanpal Nighantu is also known as Gana Nighantu because it deals with drugs enumerated in MadanadiGanas of Ashtanga Hridaya. Madanpal Nighantu is one of the earlier Nighantu that introduced a number of contemporary drugs and constructed the base which in turn paved the way to works such as Bhavaprakasha Nighantu, Raj Nighantu, and others. The Madanpal Nighantu consists of 13 chapters which are chronologically divided into different Vargas namely (Abhyadi, Sunthiyadi, Karpuradi, Suvarna, Vatadi, Phala, Shaka, Panadi, Iksu, Dhanya, Kritanna, Mamsa, and Misraka). The Madanpal Nighantu mentioned about 577 Dravyas (510 vegetable drugs and 56 metallic, and 11 animal drugs). The style and subject of Madanpal Nighantu have some resemblance with that of Dhanwantari Nighantu. However, the number of herbs is more in Madanpal Nighantu as compared with Dhanwantari Nighantu.


  Materials and Methods Top


A literary review regarding Vishaghna action of drugs is collected from Ayurvedic literature explained in Madanpal Nighantu. The study shows the literary reconsideration of Madanpal Nighantu. Madanpal Nighantu of Nrip Madanpal, edited by Prof. Gyanendra Pandey, published by Chaukhambha orientalia, Varanasi, India.


  Observations Top


Number of Vishaghna Dravya observed in chapter Abhayadi Varga, Sunthyadi Varga, Karpooradi Varga, Swarnadi Varga, Vatadi Varga, Phaladi Varga and showing anti-toxic properties [Table 1][Table 2][Table 3][Table 4][Table 5][Table 6][Table 7].


  Discussion Top


Whenever a Visha Dravya is ingested or entered into the body it immediately disturbs the function of the body by vitiating the Doshas and Dhatus of the body. As described in various texts of Ayurveda by different Acharya, Visha possesses various unique qualities such as Laghu (light), Ruksha (rough), Ashukari (fast acting), Vyavayi (quickly absorbable), Teekshna (sharp), Vikasi (depressant), Sukshma (subtle), Ushna (hot), Vishada (non-slimy), Anirdesh.[64] These qualities are just the opposite of Ojas (essence of vitality). Ojas in Ayurveda is considered as the essence of all the seven Dhatus and represent the Bala or biological strength which can also be correlated with the immunity of the body. Visha when enters into the body quickly invades all the Dhatus by vitiating them which deregulates the production of Ojas and finally developing various diseases. In the present scenario, society is exposed to different forms of Visha through different routes which could be a possible cause for many disease conditions. Out of the more than 500 drugs enlisted in the Madanpal Nighantu, at least 15% are observed to possess Vishahara (anti-toxic) activity with the highest number that is, a total of 74 drugs possess Vishaghna property. There are 18 drugs in Abhyadi Varg, 1 drug in Shunthayadi Varg, 15 drugs in Karpooradi Varg, 14 in Swarnadi Varg, 11 in Vatadi Varg, 2 in Phaladi, 4 in Shaaka Varg, 5 in Paniya Varg, 1 in IkshuvadiVarg, 3 in Dhanyadi Varg.

Notably, three drugs have been specifically mentioned as effective against snake venom. Leonhard Rauwolf (Aristolochia diolca). Grand crinum lily (Crinum asiaticum), and spiny gourd (Momordi cadiolca) has been attributed in Madanpal Nighantu emphasizing its role as an important drug in the management of snake poison. Nakuli (Aristolochia diolca) is the only single drug mentioned for rat poison (Aakhu Visha) in Madanpal Nighantu which is also useful in snake, scorpion, and spider poisons. The metal Loha (iron) and Kantpasana (magnet), which are mentioned in Swarnadi Varg, Chavya Pushpa (Piper officinarum) which is mentioned in Abhyadi Varg, Nandi Vraksha (Ficus ritusia) which is mentioned in Vatadi Varg, and Garvishghna Maruvak (Origanum majorena) which is mentioned in Karpooradi Varg is Vrashcchikadi Vishahar.

The following study was conducted to validate some properties of various drugs:

  1. Origanum majorana (OM) is known to have antioxidant properties.[65]


  2. The tested fractions (Aristolochia indica, Hemidesmus indicus, Gloriosa superba, Strychnos nux-vomica, Eclipta prostrata, and Andrographis paniculata) showed neutralizing effect against the snake venom.[66]


  3. Azadiracta indica is known to have anti-toxic and anti-fungal properties.[67] (The metal Loha (iron) and Kantpasana (magnet), which are mentioned in Swarnadi Varg, Chavya Pushpa (Piper officinarum) which is mentioned in Abhyadi Varg, Nandi Vraksha (Ficus ritusia) which is mentioned in Vatadi Varg, and Garvishghna Maruvak (Origanum majorena) which is mentioned in Karpooradi Varg is Vrashcchikadi Vishahar.) There is no research work found, still need researches on this property



  Conclusion Top


According to Ayurveda, Oja (essence of vitality) gives immunity to the body is vitiated by Visha acts against the Gunas of Oja and hence weakened the immunity of the body. Many Vishahara drugs described in Samhitas have immune-modulator and antitoxic activity. A research study on Organum majorana (Maruvak) shows antitoxic activity against lead toxicity.[65] Herbal Ayurvedic drugs mentioned in Madanpal Nighantu, can be used as a remedial measure for various renames and toxins. It can be concluded that 74 drugs of different Varga of Madanpal Nighantu possess antitoxic activity against various Sthawar and Janghametc toxins. However, various studies are needed to establish the antitoxic effect of these drugs.

Financial Support and Sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of Interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Sud S, Sud KS Efficacy and usefulness of Visha dravyas in Rasaushadhis (HMPs). J Tradit Med Clin Natur 2018;7:2.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Supreeta LD, Ajithkamath M, Mahesh Savalagimath Role of visha in chikitsa –A reminder. IJAR 2015;5. vol-5/issue 1/jun 2015/issn2249-555x.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. Abhayadi Varga, verse 313. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 77.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 316. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 78.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 139. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 80.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 154. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 102.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 214. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 138.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 223. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 144.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 226, Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 147.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 233. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 153.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 260. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 178.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 264. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 187.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 274. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 194.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 293. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 222.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 297. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 225.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 306. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 230.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 308. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 231.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 315. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 236.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 323. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 242.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Abhayadi Varga, verse 327. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 246.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Sunthayadi Varga, verse 19. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 268.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Karpooradi Varga, verse 3. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 285.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Karpooradi Varga, verse 5. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 286.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Karpooradi Varga, verse 11. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 288.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Karpooradi Varga, verse 20. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 293.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Karpooradi Varga, verse 26. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 295.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Karpooradi Varga, verse 30. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 296.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Karpooradi Varga, verse 39. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 300.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Karpooradi Varga, verse 51. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 308.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Karpooradi Varga, verse 63. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 317.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Karpooradi Varga, verse 67. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 319.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Karpooradi Varga, verse 77. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 322.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Karpooradi Varga, verse 79. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 324.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Karpooradi Varga, verse 99. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 334.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Karpooradi Varga, verse 101. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 335.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Karpooradi Varga, verse 108. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 340.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Swarnadi Varga, verse 4. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 345.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Swarnadi Varga, verse 16. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 347.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Swarnadi Varga, verse 24. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 349.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Swarnadi Varga, verse 26. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 349.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Swarnadi Varga, verse 27. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 349.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Swarnadi Varga, verse 29. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 350.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Swarnadi Varga, verse 31. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 350.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Swarnadi Varga, verse 33. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 350.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Swarnadi Varga, verse34. Varanasi: Chaukumba Orientalia. p. 350.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Swarnadi Varga, verse 36. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 351.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Swarnadi Varga, verse 47. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 353.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Swarnadi Varga, verse 50. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 353.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Swarnadi Varga, verse 60-61. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 355.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Swarnadi Varga, verse 67. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 356.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Vatadi Varga, verse 12. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 409.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Vatadi Varga, verse 14. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 410.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Vatadi Varga, verse 15. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 410.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition 2012,Vatadi Varga, verse 23. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Chaukumba Orientalia. p. 413.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Vatadi Varga, verse 27. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 415.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Vatadi Varga, verse 32. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 418.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Vatadi Varga, verse 33. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 418.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Vatadi Varga, verse 48. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 427.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Vatadi Varga, verse 49. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 427.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Vatadi Varga, verse 51. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia. p. 428.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Vatadi Varga, verse 66. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 439.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Phaladi Varga, verse 58. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 465.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.
Pandey G Madanpal Nighantu. 1st edition. Vatadi Varga, verse 92. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 484.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.
Tripathi B Charak Samhita, part 2. Vishachikitsa Adhyay verse 23/24, Varanasi: Chaukhambha surbharti Prakashan; 2005. p. 752.  Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.
Al Syaad KM, Ibrahim EH Study of the antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties of Origanum majorana leaf acetone extract. Pakistan J Pharm Sci 2020;33.  Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.
Samy RP, Thwin MM, Gopalakrishnakone P, Ignacimuthu S Ethnobotanical survey of folk plants for the treatment of snakebites in southern part of Tamilnadu, India. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;115:302-12.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.
Dinesh KC Cytological effects of leaf extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. on root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. Doctoral dissertation; Central Department of Botany.  Back to cited text no. 67
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
About Nighant...
Materials and Me...
Observations
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed314    
    Printed14    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded41    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal