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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2020
Volume 8 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 155-242

Online since Wednesday, November 11, 2020

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Critical review on pharmacological uses of Gunja (Abrus precatorious) p. 155
Gunja K Dahikar, Bharat Rathi, Sandip B Kamble
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_60_20  
Abrus precatorious is a herb mentioned in Samhita and other Ayurveda texts commonly known as Indian liquorious. In Samhita, it is mentioned under Sthavara Visha (inanimate poisons) and in the texts of Rasashastra it is classified under Upavishas (semipoisonous drug). The word Upavisha (semi-poisonous drug) means nearer to Visha (poison), that is, drugs which possess the same qualities of poison, but not equally potent. Although a number of formulations are developed to treat various diseases, still further information concerning to A. precatorius needs to be reorganized. Hence, this work has been planned to study the pharmacological aspect of A. precatorius through literature review. Relevant references were searched, to collect information about A. precatorius through thirteen classical texts. All the references were reviewed, compiled, analyzed, and discussed thoroughly for in-depth understanding of pharmacological aspect of A. precatorious Abrus precatorious is recognized with various synonyms. In various Ayurveda texts, about 30 synonyms are found for Shweta (white) A. precatorious 32 synonyms for Rakta (red) A. precatorius and 8 synonyms for Krishna (black) A. precatorius. Three varieties of A. precatorius are described in Ayurveda texts. Abrus precatorious shows therapeutic effects such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antispasmodic, antiantifungal, antitumor, antidiabetic, and antimigraine. It is also effectively used in treating wounds, ulcers, throat scratches, hair problems, and sores. Abrus precatorious is used in the formulations after proper purification can show wonderful results in various disease conditions.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Mathematical interpretation of the pharmacodynamics of homeopathic medicines p. 162
John Michel Warner
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_55_20  
According to Hahnemann, homeopathic medicines must be great immune-responses inducers. In crude states, these medicines pose severe threats to the immune system. So, the immune system of an organism backfires against the molecules of the medicinal substances. The complex immune-response mechanism activated by the medicinal molecules can handle any threats which are similar to the threats posed by the medicinal molecules. The intersectional operation of the two sets: medicine-induced immune-responses and immune-responses necessary to cure diseases shows that any effective homeopathic medicine, which is effective against any disease, can induce immune responses that are necessary to cure the specific disease. In this paper, this mechanism has been exemplified by the action of Silicea in the human body. Also, a neuroimmunological assessment of the route of medicine administration shows that the oral cavity and the nasal cavity are two administration-routes where the smallest doses (sometimes even few molecules) of a particular homeopathic medicine induce the most effective and sufficient (in amount) purgatory immune-responses. Administering the smallest unitary doses of Silicea in the oral route can make significant changes in the vital force line on the dose-response relationship graph. The dose-response relationship graph further implicates that the most effective dose of a medicine must be below the lethality threshold. If multiple doses of any medicine are administered at the same intervals, the immune-system primarily engages with the medicinal molecules; but along the passage of time, the engagement line splits into two: one engages with the medicinal molecules and another engages with diseases. The immune system’s engagement with the diseases increases along the passage of time, though the engagement with the medicinal molecules gradually falls with the administration of descending doses. Necessarily, I have shown through mathematical logic that the descending doses, though they seem to be funny, can effectively induce the most effective immune responses.
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Comparative study of Nyagrodha Ksheer Sutra and Snuhi Ksheer Sutra in the management of Bhagandar (Fistula-in-Ano) p. 177
Dhananjay D Deshmukh, Kiran B Khandare, Pooja P Shrivastav, Neha S Chavhan
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_30_20  
The term Bhagandhar is a condition that causes Daran (cutting) of Bhag (vulva), Guda (anus), and Bastipradesh (perianal region) at first, it is present as Pidika in Apakwa or un-suppurated condition and when it becomes Pakwa or suppurated, it is called as Bhagandar.It is correlated with fistula-in-ano, as described in modern medical science. Fistula-in-ano is defined as an inflammatory tract that is lined by unhealthy granulation tissue, having its external opening in the perianal region and internal opening in the anal canal or rectum. Various surgical as well as parasurgical treatments are in rage to treat anal fistula but they have certain limitations and risk of recurrence. In this study, an effort was made to derive a standard and easily accessible treatment for fistula-in-ano. Snuhi Ksheer Sutra application is a proved effective treatment for Bhagandhar, but Snuhi creates many problems during the preparation of the thread. Nyagrodha Ksheer was used in the present research work, as it is available in abundance and in all seasons and its latex can be easily extracted. Nyagrodha Ksheer possesses Vranaropak and Krimighna properties and it acts on the basis of its Shodhan (wound cleaning) property. By comparing the advantages of Nyagrodha Ksheer Sutra with those of Snuhi Ksheer Sutra, it can be concluded that Nyagrodha Ksheer Sutra may be used as a good alternative of Snuhi Ksheer Sutra in the management of Bhagandar.
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Clinical evaluation of the effectiveness of Switra Nashak Churna and Lepa in the management of Switra (vitiligo): A pilot study p. 185
Seema Malakar, Abhishek Bhattacharjee, Niten Barman
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_81_20  
Background: All the skin diseases in Ayurveda have been described under the heading of Kushtha. Pigmentation disorder Switra is also considered under Kushtha, as it fulfills the general criteria of Kustha, by causing cosmetic problems. The description of Switra found in Ayurveda texts is very much similar to that of vitiligo mentioned in modern contemporary medicine. According to modern medical science, vitiligo is the most common pigmentation disorder that is characterized by a progressive loss of melanocytes from the epidermis; it manifests as white macules and/ or patches on the skin and/ or mucosa with or without whitening of hair. Though many treatment modalities are available in the modern contemporary system of medicine, most of those treatment modalities are expensive, having serious adverse effects; apart from this, many a time, the output of the treatment is not satisfactory. In Ayurveda, many formulations for internal as well as external use have been mentioned for this condition. So to achieve an effective, safe, and affordable treatment, this study was planned with the drugs that are considered the best in the treatment of Switra. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Switra Nashak Churna and Lepa in the management of Switra (vitiligo). Materials and Methods: In this clinical study, 25 patients suffering from Switra were given Switra Nashak Churna (Bakuchi beeja and Khadir sara) with Haridra swaras anupana and Switra Nashak Lepa (Bakuchi beeja, Mulaka beeja, and Gomutra) as external application followed by a sun exposer. Out of the 25 patients, 20 completed the treatment for 60 days. Assessment was done before starting the treatment and on the 60th day based on the size and number of depigmented skin lesions. Result: Statistically significant improvement was observed in the patients in terms of the size and number of the skin lesions. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Switra Nashak Churna and Switra Nashak Lepa have been found to be effective in the management of vitiligo. After the assessment on the 60th day, the improvement was found to be significant.
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Pharmaceutico analytical profile of Kushmanda Avaleha and its modified dosage form as Kushmanda granules p. 193
Neha S Chavhan, Bharat J Rathi, Dhananjay D Deshmukh
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_36_20  
Background: Kushmanda Avaleha (KA, confection) has been described in Sharangdhar Samhita as a drug of choice in Raktapitta Chikitsa (hemorrhage). Ayurveda mentioned Five Basic Kalpanas, which are called Panchvidha Kashya Kalpana. Panchvidha Kashya Kalpana has several drawbacks, such as less palatability, shorter shelf life, etc. Hence, to overcome these drawbacks, secondary formulations were developed. Avaleha Kalpana was a secondary formulation developed by using primary formulations, such as Swaras (juice), Kwatha (decoctions), etc. Avaleha formulation was prepared by using herbal medicinal drugs and food articles such as sugar, ghee (clarified butter), honey etc. Administering proper dose of Avaleha is difficult in new era than Avaleha convert into granules form because, considering the changing scenario of the society, converting traditional dosage forms into more palatable, easily absorbable forms without changing desired therapeutic effects becomes need of the hour. In the current study, an attempt has been made to convert KA into granules form, which is the first step toward research on the formulation; hence, the current work was planned. Aim: Analytical study of KA and its modified dosage form as Kushmanda granules (KG)Materials and Methods: Three batches of KA were prepared as per the reference of Sharangdhar Samhita (8/22–28), and the same is converted into granules by adopting standard operative procedures. Result and Conclusion: Loss on drying at 105°C, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, alcohol-soluble extractives, water-soluble extractives, pH, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing sugar, and total fat and moisture content in the range of Avaleha is 2.3%, 0.7%, 0.103%, 71.22%, 77.12%, 4.2%, 78.15%, 68.21%, 5.6%, and 2.92%. The range of granules is 3.1%, 1.2%, 0.36%, 38.09%, 41.2%, 3.53, 80.17, 78.12, 4.5, 0.92, and 3.12, respectively.
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Pharmaceutico-analytical standardization and drug dosage modification of Dhatryadi Churna p. 200
Sanket Babarao Shelke, Bharat Rathi, Anita Wanjari, Dhirajsingh Rajput
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_71_20  
Introduction: Churnakriya has been described in Ayurveda classics under the concept of Bhavana Samskara (process of trituration) where the drug in the powder form is triturated with liquid preparations containing the same ingredients to enhance the potency of drug and dose reduction. Considering Churna Kalpana (powdered drug) where the dose is large, Churnakriya concept proves helpful in reducing the dose and enhancing the palatability. Aim: Pharmaceutico-analytical standardization and drug dosage modification of DC (Dhatryadi Churna). Materials and Methods: DV (Dhatryadi Vati) was prepared as described in classics. The Churna was triturated with the decoction of the same ingredients taken in equal proportion. Trituration was continued till 3 days. Classical DC and the DV were analytically studied for organoleptic and various physicochemical properties such as moisture content, ash values, extractive values hardness, friability, and disintegration time, and uniformity of weight. High-performance thin-layer chromatography was also carried out to ascertain the quality, purity, and safety of these herbal formulations. Observations and Results: Standard DV can be prepared from three Bhavana of Dhatryadi Kwatha each Bhavana for average 193.55min, prepared DV will be dark brown color with smell is pleasant and average 557.77g of Bhavita Dhatryadi Churna can be obtained from 506.33g of DC with 10.35% weight gain. Analytical specifications observed for DC and DV were within the acceptable limits mentioned in API so both formulations are of standard quality. Conclusion: Preparation of DV was done in three batches. The trituration period was 3–4h a day for each Bhavana. At the end of Bhavana the product showed all the features of Subhavita Lakshana (signs of proper trituration). The final product yielded 10.35% weight gain.
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Shelf-life evaluation of Indukanta Ghritam: A preliminary study p. 210
Punam Aggarwal, Galib Ruknuddin, Pradeep K Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_77_20  
Background: The concept of Saviryata Avadhi (shelf life) of different Ayurveda dosage forms is well described in Sharngadhara saṃhita. Shelf life is an important component and is mandatory to be displayed on the label of all medicinal products. This is also applicable to Ayurveda; thus, it becomes essential to establish shelf life of formulations that are being marketed and used in therapeutics. An attempt has been made in this study to evaluate shelf life of Indukanta Ghritam (IKG) which is not reported till date though in general it has been quoted by Gazette of India, that is, 2 years. Aim: To evaluate the shelf life of IKG through the accelerated stability study. Materials and Methods: Five batches were prepared according to Ayurveda Pharmacopoeia of India and the observations and results were systematically recorded. Physicochemical parameters were measured at the temperature of 40°C ± 2°C and the relative humidity was 75% ± 5%. The analysis was carried out at the intervals of 0, 1, 3, and 6 months, and the average 10% degradation time was calculated and extrapolated to find the shelf life as per ICH guidelines and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of sample was also carried out. Results: The average percentage loss in final product was 7.71% in IKG. The shelf life of IKG is found to be 19 months. Conclusion: The classics have mentioned the shelf life as 16 months, whereas the Gazette of India states the shelf life as 2 years for Ghrita. The shelf life of IKG is equal to the classic. This might be because of the precautions observed during the manufacturing and storing phases of the drug.
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CASE REPORTS Top

A case study on Ayurveda interventions in lipodermatosclerosis p. 217
Latika Kundra, Poonam Verma, Prasanth Dharmarajan, Santhosh K Bhatted
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_56_20  
Introduction: Chronic venous insufficiency raises as an issue in the medical system with its different stages. The incidence is more common in females than males. The cutaneous changes are a common feature of chronic venous insufficiency, which include lipodermatosclerosis. It refers to the pain, skin induration, inflammation, tenderness, and hyperpigmentation of the legs. It is observed that the clinical features of lipodermatosclerosis have striking similarities with the clinical presentation of Vatarakta, which is characterized by pain, tenderness, suppuration, and discoloration of skin. In modern science, treatment of lipodermatosclerosis is limited to compression therapy with either graded stockings or elastic bandages. There is no permanent and safe cure with modern medicine, except long-term care and management. So there is need of safe noninvasive treatments that can promise a good relief and healthy life. Keeping these factors into consideration, a case study was carried out based on Ayurveda principles and practice. Materials and Methods: This clinical study is a case report on the efficacy of Ayurveda principles through Shamana (pacification) medication along with certain Panchakarma therapies such as Virechana (Purgation), Basti (enema), and Raktamokshana (bloodletting) in the management of a patient diagnosed as varicose vein complicated with lipodermatosclerosis Result and Conclusion: There was significant relief in pain, tenderness, swelling, and induration in bilateral lower limbs. Revised chronic venous insufficiency score improved from 28 to 21 and quality of life improved from 61 to 42 according to CIVIQ 20. The results of this study suggest that Ayurveda medicine along with Panchakarma therapies can provide an efficient result for managing lipodermatosclerosis.
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Clinical management of lipoma with Triphala Kala Basti—A case study p. 225
Santoshkumar Bhatted, Poonam Verma, Latika
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_68_20  
Background: Lipoma is the most common type of soft tissue tumors. Patients having more of the cosmetic value than the morbidity and mortality. It appears as a solitary, soft, movable, and painless mass that may remain stationary or grow slowly. The masses are often benign, and while the age of onset can vary, they most often develop between the age of 40 and 60 years. Everyone seeks medical care due to cosmetic reasons. There is no permanent cure found yet. In Ayurveda, lipoma can be correlated with Medoj Granthi based on similar signs and symptoms. The present clinical study is a case report on the lipoma (Medoj Granthi) along with an altered lipid profile managed successfully through Triphala Kala Basti. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Triphala Kala Basti in the management of lipoma, lipid profile, and reduction in weight. Case Details: In this study, a patient with lipoma visited the outpatient department of Panchakarma, AIIA Hospital. He was managed here according to Ayurveda principles and Panchakarma therapies. The lipid profile and size of lipoma were assessed before the treatment, after the treatment, and during follow-up. Result and Observation: There is a significant reduction in the size of lipoma, weight, body mass index, and lipid measurement. Discussion and Conclusion: Medoj Granthi is Meda pradhan Vata Kaphaja vyadhi. Drug required is the one which is having property against the vitiated body humors and thus Triphala is selected for the trial.
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Management of Ksheena Shukra (Azoospermia) in Ayurveda prospect: A case report p. 230
Jitendra Varsakiya, Alisha Dhaniya, Divyarani Kathad
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_58_20  
In today’s scenario, cases of infertility are increased day by day and it is disturbing social as well as the mental health of people all over the world. Male infertility is a contributing factor in one-third of the couples with no children. There are so many modern therapeutics are there but result surety is not. It is need of time to explore fertility agents from herbal, herbomineral formulations with lifestyle and diet control. Azoospermia is the disorder in which there is a lack of measurable level of sperm in his semen in male. In Ayurveda classics, there is a description of Shukra Dushti, Ksheena Shukra, Ksheena Retasa, Alpa Retasa, and Shukra Dosha like conditions that result from the Shukra Dhatu vitiation by Doshas. Ayurveda can be the choice of this disease to manage. A case of 34-year-old, healthy male patient visited the OPD of Kayachikitsa with complaints of unable to conceive her partner even after having 7 years of married life. Semen analysis of this patient revealed a low sperm count (0 million/mL) with no other abnormalities. This case was managed with Virechana procedure followed by Tritiya Baladi Yapana Basti for 21 days and then the patient was administered Shaman Chikitsa for 4 months. After this treatment, sperm count increased to 68 million/mL. The detail of this case highlights the role of Shodhan and Shaman Chikitsa in the management of Azoospermia.
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Management of Indralupta (Alopecia areata) by Jaloukavacharana and Shamana Aushadh: A case report p. 236
Santosh Kumar Bhatted, Prasanth Dharmarajan, Neelam Kaalia, Jitender Kumar
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_65_20  
Background: Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. Hair loss may not harm physically that much but it might lead to psychological impact and may cause depression. Alopecia areata (AA) is a condition resulting in localized, nonscarring hair loss. Patches are more common on the scalp without any scaling and inflammation. In Ayurveda texts, a similar condition is mentioned in Kshudrarogas known as Indralupta. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Jalaukavacharana in Alopecia areata. Materials and Methods: It is a single case study of a 22-year-old female patient with a complaint of asymptomatic loss of hair at a single site over the scalp for 5 months. This case of Alopecia areata (Indralupta) was successfully treated with 12 sittings of Jalaukavacharana (leech therapy) for four and a half months and 3 months Ayurveda medication. Result: The patch was immensely filled with lustrous black hairs at the end of the follow-up period. Conclusion: Hence, it can be concluded that Ayurveda provides a promising result in the patient of Indralupta through Jaloukavacharana and Shamana Aushadh. It can be a choice of treatment, keeping in mind its cost-effectiveness and successful management as compared to conservative treatment.
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PROCEEDING REPORT Top

Traditional Health Healers Meet 2020 state-level conference and workshop p. 240
Bhushan Deoraoji Mhaiskar
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_69_20  
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