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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2021
Volume 9 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-65

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NAMASTE Portal: A standard reference repository for Ayurveda terminologies Highly accessed article p. 1
Srihari Sheshagiri
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_29_21  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Pedagogical review on Ayurveda concept of uterine fibroids Highly accessed article p. 3
Kaumadi Karunagoda, Kamal Perera, Hemantha Senanayake
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_90_20  
Uterine fibroids are common reproductive track tumors of women and they are managed by the Ayurveda system of medicine. Reference on this condition is limited in Ayurveda texts. This study was aimed at collecting research and concept evidence to justify uterine fibroids, with the most similar diseases described in Ayurveda. A review of selected Ayurveda text books and a computer search of databases were carried out to collect data. Search data were interpreted in a meaningful manner with the help of Ayurveda basic concepts. Recent researchers correlate uterine fibroids with Arbuda, or Granthi. Pathogenesis, signs, and symptoms of uterine fibroids could closely correlate with the description given in Susrutha samhita on Arbuda than Granthi. Suppuration, presence of capsules, considered as smaller to Arbuda and the treatment strategy are the dissimilarities of this condition with Granthi. Uterine fibroids could be placed as Tridosha, Mansaja, and Yapya disease according to various classifications of Arbuda. Various clinical presentations of individuals with this condition can be explained with the help of Tridosha involvement. Disease pathogenesis could be described based on Shadkriyakala by following the Samprapthi of Arbuda. Further treatment approaches of uterine fibroids show a close relationship with Arbuda Chikitsa. They can be treated with Shodhana, Shaman, and Shalyaja treatments, as mentioned in Arbuda Chikitsa. In conclusion, the condition of uterine fibroids is closely related with Arbuda than Granthi. Uterine fibroids can be considered as a Mansaja type of Yapya Garbhash Gatha Arbuda due to vitiation of Tridosha. The line of treatment for this condition could be described by Arbuda Chikitsa.
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Dadima (Punica granatum L.), as an Aushadha (medicine), depicted in Ayurveda: A comprehensive review p. 12
Vivek Kumar Patel, Rabinarayan Acharya
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_14_21  
Introduction: The description of plants used in Ayurveda can be traced from hundreds of written texts. Dadima (Punica granatum L.), of family Lytheraceae, is one among the plants described under Phala Varga, a classification of Aahara Varga mentioned by ancient scriptures of Ayurveda; it is highlighted for its wide range of use as an Aahara (diet) and Aushadha (drug) in different diseased conditions. Single-hand information about this plant is still lacking. Aim: To obtain comprehensive information on Dadima (as an aushadha) different classical texts of Ayurveda. Results: Thirty-two names, known as Paryaya (synonyms), have been attributed, highlighting its morphological characteristics and pharmacological properties and actions. Dadima, as an ingredient, is included in 634 formulations. Among 530 Aushadha Kalpana (a drug), 433 were indicated for its internal use, 93 for its external use, and 4 for its external as well as internal use. Dadima is indicated in 80 different diseased conditions; among them, the maximum formulations have been found to be used in Atisara (76). Various research activities, such as antidiarrheal, cardioprotective, nephroprotective, antiarthritic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory, have been reported to validate Dadima as an ingredient of various Ayurveda indications. Conclusion: Dadima as a single drug or as an ingredient in 530 formulations have been indicated for its use as an Aushadha in 80 different diseased conditions. Dadima, a drug of Phala Varga, is a very important fruit and has a wide range of clinical indications.
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Ayurveda perspectives and research updates on factors influencing the immunity: A review p. 21
Rinky Thakur, Raghavendra Naik, RC Mythrey, Sulochana Bhat
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_3_21  
The basic concept of immunity is well explained under the heading Vyadhi-kshamatva in classical texts of Ayurveda. A clear and comprehensive understanding of the relationship between immunity and lifestyle such as daily activities, seasonal regimens, diet, emotional factors, and psychological factors is documented in ancient literature. According to Ayurveda, the most important contributing factors for the normal immune functioning of the body include Agni (digestive factors), Ahara (food), Nidra (sleep), Vyayama (physical activity/exercise), Satva (mental stability), and Rasayana (rejuvenators). In the present work, these factors influencing immunity were compiled from classical texts of Ayurveda and presented systematically with the help of published scientific literature. It is observed that good immunity in an individual will be due to effect of active and healthy functioning of the digestive system. It depends mainly on the type of food consumed. Higher diet quality is associated with the positive health of the body. Quality diet, required quantity and balanced food, is the base for the proper digestion and in turn for the development of a strong immune system. Exercises improve metabolic health which in turn provides a good immune system. Even sleep affects the immune system. Good sleep provides strong immune responses; it results in the formation of antibodies which along with white blood cells cellular immune system of body and fight against the disease. A significant relationship is also reported between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Psychological well-being also can increase living comfort. Rasayana provides a defense mechanism against diseases (Vyadhi) in the body. Proper understanding and application of these concepts in clinical practice can be a preventive strategy for a number of diseases.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Experimental brine shrimp (Artemia Salina) lethality assay to evaluate the drug incompatibility on combined administration of Kakamachi (Solanum nigrum) and Madhu (honey) p. 28
Manjunath N Ajanal, HN Sushma, IB Kotturshetty
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_82_20  
Background: Drug incompatibility is one of the major causes of adverse drug reaction (ADR) or drug-induced toxicity in Ayurveda. In fact, this science has given special importance to such drug-induced issues and grouped them under the concept of Viruddha (drug incompatibility) and provided many measures to avoid them in clinical practice; one such example is a combination of fruits of Kakamachi (Solanum nigrum [SN]) and honey. The toxicity of this combination was not assessed; thus, the present study was planned to assess the toxic effect of the combined administration of fruits of Kakamachi and honey on brine shrimp lethality assay. Aims: To evaluate the brine shrimp lethality activity of the combined drug administration of fruits of Kakamachi and honey. Materials and Methods: Authentic brine shrimp eggs were laboratory cultured in artificially prepared saline sea water, and hatched brine shrimp nauplii were subjected to different concentrations of the combination to evaluate the LC50 and lethality assay. Results and conclusion: The study demonstrated that LC50 of fruit powder of SN and honey has shown potential cytotoxic effects at a dose of 0.57 mg on brine shrimp nauplii.
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Pharmaceutical validation of modified Chitraka Haritaki Avaleha: An ayurveda semisolid dosage form p. 33
Sonam Sagar Bhinde, Sagar Mahendrabhai Bhinde, Virendrakumar K Kori, Swapnil Y Chaudhari, Biswajyoti J Patagiri, Kalpna S Patel
DOI:10.4103/0976-0016.313695  
Introduction: Chitraka Haritaki Avaleha (CHA) is a well-known Ayurveda preparation recommended in the management of chronic rhinitis, cough, asthma, anorexia, pthisis, and worm infestation. These diseases are more common in children, and, hence, CHA is one of the important formulations used in pediatric patients. However, considering its nonpalatable (bitter astringent) taste along with complexity of confection preparation, it is high time to amend and validate its pharmaceutical process. Aim: To prepare modified CHA and develop standard manufacturing procedures for this modified formulation. Materials and Methods: Five pilot batches with varying proportions of ingredients were prepared to fix the ratio of formulation composition and to make it palatable for children. In these five pilot batches, the proportion of the fifth batch was found to be most acceptable and, hence, the ratio of this batch was kept as a standard formulation based on organoleptic parameters; this procedure was repeated thrice to ensure the process validation. Results: Preparation of confection by the classical method by adding Terminalia chebula Retz. powder in decoction was not palatable for pediatric purpose. Jaggery was increased by 1.5 times, Terminalia chebula Retz. powder was reduced by 50%, and Terminalia chebula Retz. was added. Jaggery (1.5 times) used in condiments gave a desired palatable taste (mild bitter and mild astringent) for children. Conclusion: This modified process can be considered as a standard manufacturing process of CHA, especially for pediatric use.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Management of Pakshaghata (Hemiplegia due to basal ganglia bleed) through Panchakarma: A case study p. 39
Poonam Verma, Latika Kundra, Santosh Kumar Bhatted, Prasanth Dharmarajan
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_84_20  
Background: Stroke is defined as the fast onset of focal neurological deficit within which poor blood flow to the brain ends up in necrobiosis. It is the second most common reason for worldwide mortality. Hemorrhagic strokes are classified based on their underlying pathology. Some common causes of bleeding are hypertensive trauma, ruptured aneurism, AV fistula, transformation of previous ischemic pathology, and drug-elicited hemorrhage. They result in tissue injury by inflicting compression of tissue from an expanding hematoma. Pakshaghata described in Ayurveda can be correlated with hemiplegia or paralysis of half of the body (either right side or left side), impairment of sensory organs, and mental function. All Acharya have emphasized that in the manifestation of Pakshaghata, Vata is predominant with the association of Pitta and Kapha Dosha.Materials and Methods: The present clinical study is a case report on the efficacy of Panchakarma procedures along with internal medication in a patient diagnosed as a case of basal ganglionic bleed resulting in right-sided hemiplegia. Assessments were done on the basis of Barthel Index, Modified Rankin Scale, Scandinavian Stroke Scale, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results and Conclusion: There was marked improvement in walking, speech, and lifting of right upper limb with an overall improvement in quality of life. Hence, this study suggests that Panchakarma procedures along with oral Ayurveda medicine show significant relief in the symptoms of disease.
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Effective management of Kshinashukradushti (Oligoasthenospermia) with Ayurveda: a case report p. 45
P Binitha, Kshirod Kumar Ratha, RA Vahab
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_92_20  
Male factors are responsible for nearly 30% of infertility cases. Oligoasthenospermia is one of the main causes of male infertility. It includes low sperm count along with impaired sperm motility. The present case report delineate history of a 35-year-old male who presented with oligoasthenospermia leading to infertility even after 3 years of unprotected married life. The patient was administered with internal medications like Shaddharanachurnam, Sahacharadikwatham, Sahacharadisevyathailam, Kapikachuchurnam, and Kalyanakagulam for 4 months. After 4 months, semen analysis reports showed marked improvement in sperm count and an increase in sperm motility. The female partner came with a positive pregnancy report on the next cycle after 4 months of medication. The present findings and the effective management of Oligoasthenospermia with Ayurveda formulations without any adverse effect highlight the promising scope of traditional medicine in male infertility disorders.
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Management of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis by integrated naturopathy and yoga therapy: a case report p. 49
Sujithra Sreekumari Thanudhas, Mangairkarasi Narayanasamy, Prabu Poornachandran
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_97_20  
Spondylolisthesis is the forward displacement of a vertebra relative to the vertebra below, and it arises as a result of a pars defect. Lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis is an established condition, and it classically involves the L4/L5 level with mild degenerative changes; the symptoms vary from lower back pain to lower limb radiculopathy depending on the severity. The present case reported was of a 57-year-old married woman diagnosed with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis after an accidental fall; her symptoms began with severe pain and numbness in both legs radiating from her buttock region. This case study was done to investigate the effectiveness of combined Yoga and naturopathy therapy in relieving degenerative pain. The subject received a specific yoga protocol, which includes Yogasanas, Pranayama, and relaxation techniques along with naturopathy treatments, including hydrotherapy, acupuncture, and natural diet therapy for 30 days. According to the findings of the visual analogue scale (VAS) and SF-MPQ-2 scale, the pain symptoms score changed from 9.2 to 1.3 and from 79 to 20, respectively. This result shows that the combined effect of Yoga and naturopathy treatment helps in relieving pain and improves the quality of life in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis.
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Management of varicose veins through therapeutic purgation and bloodletting therapy: a case study p. 52
Harshal Bramhanwade, Swarnakant Jena, Pratik D Bahute, Santosh Kumar Bhatted, Prasanth Dharmarajan
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_110_20  
Background: Varicose veins are enlarged, swollen, and tortuous veins, which mainly affect lower limbs (legs and feet). There may be involvement of superior veins or deep veins. Varicose veins are not a threat to life but it affects day-to-day activities and conditions worsen with chronicity. In contemporary medicine, compressing and stripping by surgery are mainly used treatments for varicose veins. Varicose veins are described as Siragranthi in Ayurveda. Virechana followed by Raktamokshana and internal medication (Manjishthadi Kwatha and Kaishore Guggulu) are found to be useful in the treatment of Siragranthi. Materials and Methods: This case study of a 40-year-old patient of varicose veins includes Virechana and Raktamokshana (bloodletting), which showed significant relief in Shoola (pain), Shotha (swelling), and Daha (burning sensation). Results: After a total of 18 days of treatment, the VCSS score reduced from 8 to 3 and the VAS score reduced from 5 to 2. This proves the significant effect of classical Ayurveda Panchakarma treatment like Virechana and Raktamokshana in varicose veins.
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Management of plantar fasciitis with Raktamokshana and Shamana Chikitsa in Ayurveda: a case study p. 59
Bhawna Solanki, Ajaya Meher, Santosh Kumar Bhatted, Prasanth Dharmarajan
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_111_20  
Observation and Results: The therapy provided marked improvement in the pain and tenderness. Pain from visual analog scale (VAS) of 8 came to 2, tenderness grading soft tissue scale from 5 came to 2.5, and PF pain/disability scale from 77 came to 2. It is the need of the hour to focus on such therapies which are result-oriented and less expensive. From this study, it can be inferred that this treatment can be effectively adopted in patients of PF.
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PROCEEDING REPORT Top

Report on National Webinar on “Development of Tools and Techniques for Assessment of Prakriti in Children” p. 64
Renu Bharat Rathi
DOI:10.4103/JISM.JISM_6_21  
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