Journal of Indian System of Medicine

REVIEW ARTICLE
Year
: 2020  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 266--276

Kampillaka (Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg.), an overlooked plant of ayurveda pharmacopoeia: A review


Mital Mansukhbhai Buha, Rabinarayan Acharya 
 Department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mital Mansukhbhai Buha
I.P.G.T. and R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar 361008, Gujarat.
India

Abstract

Introduction: KampillakaMallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. of family Euphorbiaceae, is one of the best drugs of Ayurveda, known for its use in krimiroga (worms). Materials and Methods: This article delineates about the various aspects of Kampillaka, being collected from 20 Nighantu (lexicons), 18 Rasagrantha (compendia related to Rasashastra), 09 Chikitsa grantha (Compendia), and 08 Samhita (treaties). For its identification, about 46 Paryaya (synonyms) were attributed, highlighting its morphological characteristics and pharmacological properties and actions. Result and Discussion: Kampillaka possesses Katu Rasa, Laghu guna, Ushna Veerya, Katu vipaka, and kapha nashaka properties and Bhedi, Deepana, Grahi, and Rechi (Patra shaka) actions. It has been indicted in more than 22 disease conditions where maximum texts recommend it in Krimi Roga (Worm), Vrana (Wound), Gulma (Abdominal lump), Adhmana (Distention), Vibandha (Constipation), Jvara (Fever) etc. Kampillaka as an ingredient has been included in 128 formulations; as recorded in 35 classical texts of Ayurveda through 64 and 42 formulations in internal and external administration, respectively; in more than 14 dosages form where the maximum are in Churna (31), Taila (24), Ghrita (20), Gutika (10), Lepa (10) etc. Its incompatibility with buttermilk has been highlighted in Charka Samhita. Conclusion: The observation of the current review may be helpful, proving a base to find out therapeutic application of the Kampillaka for the management of certain disease conditions such as wounds, skin disease, worm infestation etc., which have been highlighted in classical texts.



How to cite this article:
Buha MM, Acharya R. Kampillaka (Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg.), an overlooked plant of ayurveda pharmacopoeia: A review.J Indian Sys Medicine 2020;8:266-276


How to cite this URL:
Buha MM, Acharya R. Kampillaka (Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg.), an overlooked plant of ayurveda pharmacopoeia: A review. J Indian Sys Medicine [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Apr 19 ];8:266-276
Available from: https://www.joinsysmed.com/text.asp?2020/8/4/266/309121


Full Text



 Introduction



Kampillaka, botanically identified as Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. of family Euphorbiaceae, is one among the few drugs of Ayurveda, highlighted for its use in krimiroga (worms).[1] Traditional healers also use various parts of this plant for certain disease conditions, through both external and internal administration. It is a much branched, small tree up to 3–6 m tall. Leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate, 8–22 × 3–8cm, 3-nerved at base, glabrous above, pubescent, and with numerous red glands beneath; petiole bearing two small glands near the apex. Flowers small; males in erect terminal spikes forming elongated paniculate racemes; females solitary in short spikes, ovary covered with red glands. Fruits globose, 3-lobed, 8–10mm in diameter, covered with bright red powder. Seeds subglobose, black, 3–4mm across.[2],[3]

Though each Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia reports the clinical uses of Kampillka, comprehensive single-hand information of the drug kampillaka is still lacking. Hence, an attempt has been made for a meticulous review to create an exclusive database on the identification characteristics, properties, indications, and formulations of Kampillaka as described in the available Ayurvedic pharmacopoeias and compendias.

 Materials and Methods



Search criteria

Information regarding the drug Kampillakais was compiled from the printed form of Nighantu, Samhita, Chikitsagrantha, and Rasagrantha and the online source of e- Nighantu. Each of the texts has been scrutinized chapter by chapter, with search words Kampillaka, Kabila, Kampilla, and Kampilyaka. Information was extracted from a total of 20 Nighnatu [Table 1], 14 Rasagrantha [Table 2], 09 Chikitsagrantha [Table 3], and 08 Samhita [Table 4].{Table 1} {Table 2} {Table 3} {Table 4}

Formulations containing Kampillaka or its parts, as an ingredient, were critically studied and recorded in a specially designed information sheet. With an aim to make the presentation short, various abbreviations were created for different dosage forms, such as Avleha (confection) (Al), Churna (powder) (Cr), Dhoopa (Fumigation) (Dp), Ghrita (medicated ghee) (Gr), Gutika (pills) (Gt), Kalka (paste) (Kl), Kwatha (decoction) (Kw), Lepa (Paste) (Lp), Malahara (ointment) (Ml), Modaka (bolus) (Mo), Paka (Jaggery preparation) (Pk), Sneha (oil preparation) (Sn), Taila (oil) (Tl), and Varti (Wick) (Vr).

NAMASTE PORTAL[4] was referred for the interpretation of classical Ayurvedic terminologies and their nearest English equivalents, and the terms that are not available there were referred from Standard dictionaries[5] and AFI.[6] Both internal and external administration was categorized according their srotasa of origin and was presented in a tabular form accordingly.[7]

Inclusion criteria

This review covers the available Ayurvedic texts in both printed and e-format. If not available in printed format, the “e” version was considered. The available data are presented in a precise tabular format in a systematic manner with regard to their synonyms, classification, properties, actions, and indications on various disease conditions.

Exclusion criteria

The current research study excluded Nighntus and Rasagranthas, which are available in manuscript form.

Data analysis

The repetition of a single formulation noted in more than one text was considered as one.

 Results and Discussion



Ayurvedic nomenclature through Paryaya (synonyms)

More than 46 Paryaya has been attributed to Kampillaka. When critically analyzed, Kampillaka is observed as an evergreen tree, found mostly on the bank of rivers (Nadivasa), a tree abundantly available at a place called Kampilya region (Kampilyaka, Kampilla, Kampillaka); bears many leaves (Bahupatra), rough (Karkashapatraka); bears many fruits (Bahuphala), rough due to the presence of the hairs (Karkasha, Karkashahvya), in the form of red-colored powder (Raktachurnaka, Raktanga, Raktaphala), just like the color of Manahashila (Manahashila); Kampillaka helps in alleviating a number of disorders and produces the feeling of well-being (Candra, Candrahvya, Candrasahvya); helps in alleviating Rakta vikara (Raktashamana, Raktashanti); is a purgative and expels worms (Rechaka, Rechana); improves taste by destroying worms, which may be the cause for anorexia (Rochana, Rochanika); and acts as a wound cleanser by killing worms (Vraṇashodhana). Kampillaka powder is used commonly for dyeing (Rajanika, Ranjaka, Ranjanaka, Ranjanika, Patodaka); the tree with above characters is known as Kampillka and it is botanically identified as M. Philippensis of the family Euphorbeace. The list of synonyms attributed to Kampillaka and their interpretations are enumerated in [Table 5].{Table 5}

Vargikarana (classification)

Based on the first drug of the group, properties, habit, number, major use of the drug, and action of the drug, kampillaka has been classified under Nikumbhadi Varga, Shyamadi Gana, Haritakyadi Varga, Chandanadi Varga etc. Based on its properties, it is described in Tikta Skandha. Based on its habit, it is included in Vṛkshakanda; it is also described in Anekarthanama Varga; Dwinama Varga; Dwitiya Gaṇa, and Ashta varga based on number. Based on the major use of the drug, it is included in Aushadhi Varga and Paniyadi Varga. Based on the partial use of the drug, it is described in Phalini Dravya. The rest have mentioned it in Virechana Dravya, Virechana Gana, Virechana Varga, and Pakvashaya Shodhaka Basti Dravya. Out of 20 Nighnatus, 18 Rasagrantha, 09 Chikitsagrantha, and 08 Samhita, 12 Nighantu, 02 Rasagrantha, 02 Chikitsagrantha, and 02 Samhita had described kampillaka under a Varga. The details of classification of Kampillaka are presented in [Table 6].{Table 6}

Rasadipanchaka (Ayurveda pharmacodynamics properties) band Doshaghnata

In relation to pharmacodynamics; the properties of drugs have been described in terms of Rasadipanchaka (Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, and Prabhava) in Ayurveda.[58] Most of Nighantus state that Kampillaka possesses Katu Rasa,[11],[12],[13],[14],[16],[22],[23],[24],[31],[46]Laghu Guna,[23],[24],[31]Ushna Veerya,[11],[12],[13],[14],[16],[17],[22],[23],[24],[31],[46]Katu Vipaka,[17] and Kapha Nashaka properties.[12],[17],[23],[24] However, some Nighantu mentioned Kampillaka as having Kaphapittanashaka,[11],[17]Kaphavata Nashaka,[16]Vatarakta Nashaka,[26],[27] and Kapha-Piita-Rakta Nashaka[13],[14] properties. The leaves are attributed with Tikta Rasa,[16]Sheeta Veerya[16] and Vatala[16] properties.

Shodhana (purification)

Shodhana of Kampillaka has been mentioned in different classical texts of Ayurveda. Kampillaka is subjected to Bhavana (trituration) with juices of Matulunga (Citrus Medica Linn) and Ardraka (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) for 3 times.[32],[63],[64]Kampillakaraja is subjected to sudation in the decoction of Haritaki (decoction of Terminalia ChebulaRetz.) by means of Dolayantra.[46]

Karma and Rogaghnta (Actions and therapeutic indications)

The factor (residing in the Dravya) that literally acts (on the Dosha/ Dhatu/Mala) is Karma; that which performs is Karma. The fruit is attributed with Rechi (Purgative)[11],[12],[13],[15],[16],[18],[22],[23],[24],[30],[34],[37],[41] and Bhedi (Purgative)[26],[27]Karma where as its leaves are attributed with Grahi[16] and Dipana (Appetizer)[16]Karma and indicated in 22 different disease conditions. Among them, the maximum indication in Krimi Roga [Worm][11],[12],[13],[14],[16],[17],[18],[22],[23],[24],[30],[31],[32],[34],[37],[41],[42],[46] followed by Vrana [Wound][11],[12],[13],[14],[16],[18],[22],[23],[24],[30],[31],[32],[34],[37],[41],[42]; Gulma (Abdominal Lump)[11],[12],[13],[14],[16],[18],[24],[26],[27],[30],[32],[34],[37],[41],[42]; Adhmana (Distention)[12],[30],[34],[37],[41],[42]; Vibandha (Constipation)[12],[30],[32],[34],[37],[41],[42]; Jvara (Fever)[30],[32],[34],[37],[41],[42]; Kaphodara (Ascites)[30],[32],[34],[37],[41],[42]; Pitta roga (Disoders due to pitta dosha)[30],[32],[32],[37],[41],[42]; Prameha (Diabetes mellitus)[11],[14],[16],[17],[18],[24]; Shotha (Inflammation)[30],[32],[34],[37],[41],[42]; Udara Roga (Ascites)[11],[12],[13],[14],[16],[24]; Visha (Poision)[11],[13],[14],[16],[18],[24]; Anaha (Distention of abdomen)[11],[13],[14],[16],[24]; Ashmari (Lithiasis)[11],[13],[14],[16],[24]; Shoola (Colic Pain)[30],[34],[37],[41],[42]; Arsha (Piles),[30],[34],[37],[41]Kasa (Cough)[23],[31],[46]; Amavata (Rheumatism)[32],[42]; Ama Dosha (Vitiated Ama)[34],[37]; Medoroga (Obesity)[13]; Murccha (Syncope)[17]; and Kushtha[17] [Figure 1].{Figure 1}

Description of the actions and indications of Kampillaka in contrary texts, which are written during different periods, confirms the use of the drug during that period. As a single drug, Kampillaka has not been attributed in the Samhita period but its incompatibility with buttermilk has been highlighted in Charka Samhita. In the Nighantu period, its use in Krimi, Vrana, and Gulma is reported mostly by Nighantu. Its use in Kushtha and Murccha has been reported only by Madanapala Nighantu and in Medoroga it has been reported only by Gunaratnamala.

Formulation containing Kampillaka in internal administration, external administration, or both

Kampillaka as an ingredient has been included in 128 formulations; as recorded in 35 classical texts of Ayurveda. After omission, the repeated 16 formulations from collected 80 formulations; 64 formulations are included under internal administration. After omission of the repeated 16 formulations from the compiled 80 formulations, 64 formulations are found indicated for internal administration. After omission the repeated 03 formulations from collected 45 formulations, 42 formulations are found indicated for external administration. Three formulations are found for both internal or external administration. Among the formulations, the maximum dosage forms are those of Churna (31), Taila (24), Ghrita (20), Gutika (10), Lepa (10), Kalka (03), Kwatha (03), Malahara (02), Varti (02), Modaka (01), Sneha (01), Dhoopa (01), Paka (01), and Avaleha (01) [Table 7][Table 8][Table 9][Table 10][Table 11][Table 12] [Figure 2]. Kampillaka has been used in 23 disease conditions in internal administration; among them, the maximum formulations have been found in Rajyakshma (12) followed by Visarpa (09), Vatavyadhi (06), Udavarta (06), Udararoga (05) two each in Shoola, Shwasa, Sutika Roga, One each in Anaha, Apasmara, Arsha, Ashmari, Balaprashava Shoola, Chhardi, Gulma, Jvara, Kamala, kasa, Krimi, Kushtha, Mutrakruchchha, Pandu and Prameha. Kampillaka has been used in 13 disease conditions in external administration; among them, the maximum formulations have been found in Kushtha (15) followed by Vrana (12). Two each in Vipadika, Visarpa,Kandu, one each in Anaha, Arsha, Kaphavrana shotha, Granthi, Dadru, Vyanga, Shvitra, and Krimi.{Table 7} {Table 8} {Table 9} {Table 10} {Table 11} {Table 12} {Figure 2}

Pranavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Udavarta (Obstipation), Kasa (Cough), Rajyakshma (Consumption), and Shwasa (Asthma) related to Pranavaha Srotasa.

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 02 formulations in Udavarta. Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 01 formulations in Kasa, Rajyakshma, and Shwasa [Table 7].

Udakavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Udararoga (Ascites) related to Udakavaha Srotasa.

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 12 formulations indicated in Udararoga, where the maximum dosage forms are Churna and Ghrita (05) [Table 8].

Annavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Gulma (Abdominal lump), Krimi (Worms), Chhardi (Emesis), Shoola (Colic Pain), and Balaprashava Shoola (nearing delivery period pain) related to Annavaha Srotasa.

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 09 formulations indicated in Gulma, where the maximum dosage form is Churna (05); in 06 formulations indicated in Krimi, where the maximam dosage form is Churna (02); and in 01 formulations each Balaprashava Shoola, Chhardi, and Shoola.

External application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 01 formulation in Krimi [Table 9].

Rasavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Jvara (Fever), Pandu (Anemia), and Kandu (Wound) related to Udakavaha Srotasa.

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 05 formulations in Jvara; in 01 formulations in Pandu.

External application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 02 formulations in Kandu [Table 10].

Raktavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Kamala (Jaundice), Kushtha (Integumentary disease), Vipadika (Cracks in palm and sole), Shvitra (Leucoderma), Vyanga (black patches on face), Dadru (skin fungal infection), Pama (scabies), and Visarpa (Eruption).

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 01 formulations in Kushtha, Kamala, and Visarpa.

External application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 15 formulations in Kushtha; in 02 formulations in Visarpa and Vipadika; and in 01 formulations in Shvitra, Vyanga, and Dadru.

Both application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in one formulation each indicated in Kushtha and Pama [Table 11].

Mansavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Vrana (Wound), Granthi (Cyst), Shotha (Inflammation), and Karnagata Vranastrava (Otorrhoea)

External application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 12 formulations in Vrana; in one formulation each indicated in Granthi and Kaphavrana Shotha.

Both application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in one formulation each indicated in Karnagata Vranastrava [Table 12].

Medovaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Prameha (diabetes mellitus).

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 06 formulations in Prameha [Table 13].{Table 13}

Vatavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Vatavyadhi (Neuromuscular anomalies).

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 02 formulations in Vatavyadhi [Table 14].{Table 14}

Manovaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Apasmara (Epilepsy).

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in one formulation indicated in Apasmara [Table 15].{Table 15}

Mutravaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Mutrakruchchha (Dysuria) and Ashmari (Lithiasis).

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in one formulation in Mutrakruchchha and Ashmari [Table 16].{Table 16}

Purishavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Arsha (piles) and Anaha (distension of abdomen)

Internal application: There is 02 formulations indicated in Arsha and 01 formulation indicated in e in Anaha.

External application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 01 formulation in Arsha and Anaha.

Karma

Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 06 formulations in Virechana Karma [Table 17].{Table 17}

Artavavaha Srotasa

Formulations containing Kampillaka have been indicated in the management of Sutika Roga (Puerperial disorders).

Internal application: Kampillaka is used as an ingredient in 01 formulation in Sutika Roga [Table 18].{Table 18}

Phytochemical constituents

Fruits contain chemical constituents like, Rottlerin (reddish yellow resin) 47.80% fixed oil 5.83–24% mallotoxin, kamalin, Oleic lauric, myristic, palmitic acid, stearic acid, crotoxigenin, rhammoside, octa casanol, iso rottlerin, rottlerin, homorottlerin tannins, citric acid and oxalic acid.[65],[66] The chemical constituents such as betulin, friedelin, kamaladiol-3-acetate, lipeol, tannic acid, 3hydroxy-D-A-friedoolean-3-en-2-one, 2β-hydroxy-D-A-friedooleanan-3-one, and 3αhydroxy-D-A-friedooleanan-2-one were reported from the stem bark.[67],[68],[69],[70] The seed contains a fixed oil, camul oil and a bitter glucosidal, Betulin-3 acetate lupeol acetate, berginin acetylaleuritote acid, sitosterol, bergenin, rottlerin resin, solid hydroxy acid, kamlonenic acid, linoleic, Oleic, lauric, myristic, palmitic acid, stearic acid, crotoxigenin, rhamnoside, coroghcignin, octa cosanol, iso rottlerin, rottlerin, homorottlerin, tannins, citric, and oxalic acidp.[64]

Common adulterants

Glandular hair powder of Mallotus philippensis is commonly adulterated with Annato dye (Bixa orellana Linn.), ferric oxide, brick dust, and ferruginous sand. Casearia tomentosa (stem bark powder), Carthamus tinctorius (flower powder), Ficus benghalensis (fruit powder), and Flamingia macrophylla (hairs of fruits) are also reported to be used as adulterants or substitutes of Kampillaka.[71]

 Conclusion



Kampillaka possesses Katu Rasa, Laghu Guna, Ushna Veerya, Katu Vipaka, and Kapha Nashaka properties. The drug is known for its medicinal properties, suhc as Rechi (Purgative), Bhedi (Purgative), Grahi (Bind stool), and Dipana (Appetizer). The fruit hair powder is also indicated in 22 clinical conditions, such as Krimi Roga [Worm], Vrana [Wound], Gulma (Abdominal Lump), Adhmana (Distention), Vibnadha (Constipation), Jvara (Fever), Kaphodara (Ascites), Pitta roga (Disoders due to pitta dosha), Prameha (Diabetes mellitus) etc. Kampillaka attains therapeutic importance in 64 formulations through internal administration, 42 formulations through external applications, and three formulations having both internal and external applications. The drug is used maximum in Churna dosage form. Kampillaka has been used in 23 disease conditions in internal application, 13 disease conditions in external application, and three disease conditions in both applications.

Acknowledgment

The authors are thankful to the Director, ITRA Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar for providing facilities to carry out the research work.

Financial Support and Sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of Interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1Nadakarni KM Indian Materia Medica. 3rd ed. Mumbai: Popular Prakashana; 1976. p. 760-3.
2Lavekar GS, Padhi MM, Mangal AK,Joseph GVR, Raman K, Selavarajan S, et al; Database on Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda and Siddha. CCRAS (Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Science), New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. p. 100-4.
3Shah GL Flora of Gujraat State. 1st ed. Vallabh Vidyanagar: Sardar Patel University; 1978; p. 630.
4Namaste Portal. Available from: namstp.ayush.gov.in/Ayurveda. [Last accessed 2020 June 10].
5Monier M, Williams A Dictionary English and Sanskrit. Varanasi: Motilal Banarsidas Publishers Private Limited; 1961.
6Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India, e-book, Part 1. New Delhi: Govt. of India - Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoepathy; 2003.
7Vandana V,Sangeeta G Review on concept of srotasa. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda pharma 2014;5;231-4. [online] Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/ [Last accessed 2020 January 13].
8Bhishagarya, Abhidhanamanjiri. New Delhi: (E - nighantu). Developed by NIIMH (National Institute of Indian Medical Heritage), Hyderabad for CCRAS (Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Science), New Delhi; 2012. Nikumbhadivarga. (Available from: http://www.niimh.nic.in/ ebooks/eNighantu.) [Last accessed 2020 February 20].
9Sharma P Abhidhanratnamala,TiktaSkandha. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Oriental; 2008. p. 24. Reprint.
10Vahata. AstangaNighantu. New Delhi: (E – nighantu). Developed by NIIMH (National Institute of Indian Medical Heritage), Hyderabad for CCRAS (Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Science); 2012. Shyamadigana. (Available from: http://www.niimh.nic.in/ebooks/eNighantu.) [Last accessed 2020 February 20].
11Chunekar KC Bhavaprakash Nighantu. Reprint 2015, Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharati Academy; 2010. Haritakyadi varga. p. 64.
12Diwedi BK DhanvantariNighantu, Reprint 2012, Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2008; Chandanadi varga. p. 113.
13Bhavmishra. Gunaratnamala. 1st ed. Pandey K, Singh A, editors. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhawan; 2006. p. 61.
14Sharma PV Haritakyadi Nighantu. 1st ed. Mumbai: Khemaraja Shrikrishnadas Prakashana; 1926. Haritakyadi varga. p. 33.
15Sharma PV Hridayadipaka Nighantu. New Delhi: (Commentary of Bopadeva) (E – Nighantu). Developed by NIIMH (National Institute of Indian Medical Heritage), Hyderabad for CCRAS (Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Science); 2012. Dwinama Varga.
16Sharma PV Kaiyadeva Nighantu. Reprint 2013, Sharma PV Sharma Guru Prasad , editors. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2006. Aushadhi Varga, p. 175.
17Chandranandan. Madanadi Nighantu. New Delhi: (E – Nighantu). Developed by NIIMH (National Institute of Indian Medical Heritage), Hyderabad for CCRAS (Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Science); 2012. Dwitiya gana. (Available from: http://www.niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ e-Nighantu.) [Last accessed 2020 February 18].
18Tripathi H Madanpala Nighantu. 1st ed. Varanasi: ChaukhambaKrishnadas Academy; 2009. Paniyadivarga, p. 210.
19Bapalal Vaidya. Nighantu Adarsha. Vol-II, Reprint 2013. Varanasi: ChaukhambhaBharatiAcadamy; 1999. Amalakyadi Varga, p. 923.
20Suri H Nighantushesha. New Delhi: (E – nighantu). Developed by NIIMH (National Institute of Indian Medical Heritage), Hyderabad for CCRAS (Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Science); 2012.Vrikshakanda (Available from: http://www.niimh.nic.in/ebooks/ e-Nighantu.) [Last accessed 2020 February 18].
21Madhavkara. Paryayaratnamala. New Delhi: (E - nighantu). Developed by NIIMH (National Institute of Indian Medical Heritage), Hyderabad for CCRAS (Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Science); 2012. (Available from: http:/ /www.niimh.nic.in/ebooks/eNighantu.) [Last accessed 2020 February 18].
22Sharma PV Priya Nighantu. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Surbharti Prakashan; 2004. Haritakyadi varga. p. 17.
23Indradeva T Raja Nighantu. Reprint 2016. Vishvanath D, editor.Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2010. Suvarnadi varga, p. 667.
24Shaligram. Shaligrama Nighantuu. 1st ed. Mumbai: Khemaraja Shrikrishnadas Prakashana; 2011. Astavarga. p. 130-1.
25Singha. Sausruta Nighantu. New Delhi: (E – nighantu) Developed by NIIMH (National Institute of Indian Medical Heritage), Hyderabad for CCRAS (Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Science); 2012. Shayamadigana. (Available from: http://www.niimh.nic.in/ebooks/eNighantu.) [Last accessed 2020 February 18].
26Ravigupta. Siddhasaramantra nighantu. (E – nighantu). Developed by NIIMH (National Institute of Indian Medical Heritage), Hyderabad for CCRAS (Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Science), New Delhi. 2012. (Available from: http://www.niimh.nic.in/ebooks/eNighantu.) [Last accessed 2020 February 18].
27Shodhala. Shodhala Nighantu. (E – nighantu). Developed by NIIMH (National Institute of Indian Medical Heritage), Hyderabad for CCRAS (Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Science), New Delhi. 2012. (Available from: http://www.niimh.nic.in/ebooks/eNighantu.) Chandanadi Varga. [Last accessed on 2020 February 18].
28Siddhinandana Mishra . Abhinava Navajeevaniyama. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orentalia; 2000.
29Bhairavakta, Anandakanda. 1st ed. Siddhinanda M, editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2008.
30Ravan Lankapati . Arkaprakasha. Indradev T, editor. Reprint. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2011.
31Madhava. Ayurveda Prakasha. Reprint 2007. Mishra G, editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharati Academy; 2006.
32Chaube D, editor. Bhrihat Rasarajasundara. 3rd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2000.
33Anantadev S, Rasacintamani , editor, Siddhinandan Mishra. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1990.
34Mookerjee B Rasa JalaNidhi, Vol. 1, 2, 3, 4and5. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Publishers, reprint - 1998.
35Chudamani M Rasa Kamadhenu. Gulrajasharma Mishra, ., editor. 3rd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1988.
36Joshi D Rasamritam, Reprint 2012. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 2003.
37Sharma D Rasaratnasammuchaya. Gupta Atrideva, , editor. 2nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1999.
38Mishra S Rasatrangani. Shastri Kashinath, , editor. 11th ed. Varanasi: Motilal Banarasidas; 2000.
39Shyamsundaraacharya Vaishya, Rasayan Sara. Reprint 2014. Varanasi: Krishnadas Ayurveda Series; 1997.
40Sharma Hariprapanna. Rasayogasagara. Vol. I and II. Reprint 2010. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 1999.
41Somadeva. Rasendrachudamani. Bajpai RD editor. 2nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 1999.
42Vishwanath D Rasendra Sambhava. 1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy; 1997.
43Dhundhukanatha. Rasendrachintamani. 1st ed. Mishra Siddhinanda, . editor. Varanasi:Chaukhhamba Orientalia; 1999.
44Bhatta Krushnarama. Siddhabheshaja Manimala. 3rd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2003.
45Trimalla Bhatta. Yogatarangini. Chandrabhshana Zha, , editor. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Vidyabhavan; 2003.
46Krishnamurthy MS Basavarajiyama; 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhhamba Orientalia; 2005.
47Govindadasa. Bhaishajya Ratnavali. Ambikadatta Shashtri, , editor. 14th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Prakashan; 2001.
48Tripathi V Chikitsa Kalika. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1987.
49Shodhala, Gadanigraha. 3rd ed. Pandeya Ganga, , editor. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1999.
50Nishteswar K, Vidyanath R Sahasrayogam. Reprint-2006. Varanasi: Chaukhhamba Krishnadas Academy; 1990.
51Shri Vallabhacharya. Vaidya Cintamani. Shrma Ram Nivas, , editor. Reprint-2013. Delhi: Chaukhamba Snskrita Prakashan; 2000.
52Bhishagvara Vidyapati, Vaidya Rahasya. Indradeva Tripathi, , Reprint 2008. editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishndas Academy; 2000.
53Vrindamadhava. Vrindhaamadhava . Tiwari P, editor. Reprint 2007. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Vishwabharti; 1922.
54Laxmipati S Yogaratnakara. Bhrahmasankar Shashtri, , editor. 8th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Prakashana; 2004.
55Vagbhata . AstangaHridaya. Gupta Atrideva, , editor. 2nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Prakashan; 2012.
56Vagbhata . AstangaSangraha, Vol. I and II. Gupta Atrideva, , 1st ed. editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2005.
57Maharshi Bhela. Bhela Samhita. Vrata Sharma Priya, , editor. 2nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Visvabharati; 2006.
58Charaka . CharakaSamhita. Shastri Rajeswara Datta, , editor. 2nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharati Academy; 2011.
59Kashyapa. Kashyapa Samhita. Tiwari PV, editor. 2nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Vishwabharti; 2008.
60Sharangadhara. Sharandhara Samhita. Shailaja Srivastava, , editor. 2nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2013.
61Sushruta. SushrutaSamhita, Vol. I and II. Dutta Shashtri Kaviraj Ambika, , editor. 2nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 2012.
62Vangasena. VangasenaSamhita. Pt. Tripathi Harihar Prashada, , editor. Reprint-2009. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Krishna Das Academy; 1996.
63Madhava. Ayurveda Prakasha. Mishra Gulrajasharma, , editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharati Academy; reprint – 2007; Ch-2/333; p. 337.
64Mookerjee B Rasa JalaNidhi, Vol. 1, 2, 3, 4and5. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Publishers; reprint - 1999. Ch- 3/3; p. 211-12.
65Sharma and Verma: A review on endangered plant of Mallotus philippensis (Lam) M Arg. Pharmacol Online 2011;3: 1256-65.
66Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S Traditional knowledge of kani tribals in Kouthalai of Tirunelveli hills, Tamil Nadu, India. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;102:246-55.
67Pandey BP People and Plants of India, Tannins and Dyes. New Delhi: S. Chand and Company Ltd; 1981.
68Nair SP, Rao JM Kamaladiol-3-acetate from the stem bark of Mallotus philippinensis. Phtochem 1993;32:407-9.
69Khare CP Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2007.
70Reiko T, Tomoko N, Chiharu Y, Shun-Ichi W, Takeshi Y, Harukuni T Potential antitumor-promoting activity of 3a-hydroxy-D: A-friedooleanan-2-one from the stem bark of Mallotus philippensi. Plzanta Med 2008;74:413-6.
71Ahmadand F, Hashmi S Adulteration in commercial Kamila (Mallotus philippinensis Muell.) an anthelmintic drug of repute. Hamdard Medicus 1995;38:62-7.